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Old-age survival has increased substantially since 1950. Death rates decelerate with age for insects, worms, and yeast, as well as humans. This evidence of extended postreproductive survival is puzzling. Three biodemographic insights--concerning the correlation of death rates across age, individual differences in survival chances, and induced alterations in(More)
The relationship between the neurosensory photoreceptors and the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) controls not only normal retinal function, but also the pathogenesis of hereditary retinal degenerations. The molecular bases for both primary photoreceptor and RPE diseases that cause blindness have been identified. Gene therapy has been used(More)
YY1 is a mammalian zinc-finger transcription factor with unusual structural and functional features. It has been implicated as a positive and a negative regulatory factor that binds to the CCATNTT consensus DNA element located in promoters of many cellular and viral genes. A mammalian cDNA that encodes a YY1-binding protein and possesses sequence homology(More)
Checkpoints maintain the order and fidelity of events of the cell cycle by blocking mitosis in response to unreplicated or damaged DNA. In most species this is accomplished by preventing activation of the cell-division kinase Cdc2, which regulates entry into mitosis. The Chk1 kinase, an effector of the DNA-damage checkpoint, phosphorylates Cdc25, an(More)
In fission yeast as well as in higher eukaryotic organisms, entry into mitosis is delayed in cells containing damaged or unreplicated DNA. This is accomplished in part by maintaining the Cdc25 phosphatase in a phosphorylated form that binds 14-3-3 proteins. In this study, we generated a mutant of fission yeast Cdc25 that is severely impaired in its ability(More)
We have cloned human cDNA encoding double-stranded RNA adenosine deaminase (DRADA). DRADA is a ubiquitous nuclear enzyme that converts multiple adenosines to inosines in double-helical RNA substrates without apparent sequence specificity. The A --> I conversion activity of the protein encoded by the cloned cDNA was confirmed by recombinant expression in(More)
BRCA1 is proposed to be a tumor suppressor gene. To explore the biological function of BRCA1, a partial deletion (amino acids 300-361) of mouse Brca1 exon 11 was introduced into the genome of embryonic stem (ES) cells by homologous recombination. Mice carrying one mutated allele of Brca1 appear normal and are fertile up to 10 months of age without any sign(More)
The specificity of antibody (Ab) responses depends on focusing helper T (Th) lymphocyte signals to suitable B lymphocytes capable of binding foreign antigens (Ags), and away from nonspecific or self-reactive B cells. To investigate the molecular mechanisms that prevent the activation of self-reactive B lymphocytes, the activation requirements of B cells(More)
Due to the difficulty in obtaining human corneas, pig corneas are often substituted as models for cornea research. The purpose of this study is to find the similarities and differences in the biomechanical properties between human and porcine corneas. Uniaxial tests were conducted using an Instron apparatus to determine their tensile strength, stress-strain(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors in the malignant progression of different tumor types. MiR-663 was recently reported to be decreased and identified as a tumor suppressor in gastric cancer. We also verified its role in repressing cell proliferation of a gastric cancer cell line. In this study, however, miR-663 was(More)