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BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated signalling and angiogenesis can contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. We aimed to assess whether ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody VEGFR-2 antagonist, prolonged survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer. METHODS We did an(More)
X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) and xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) are mainly involved in base excision repair (BER) and nucleotide excision repair (NER) of DNA repair pathways, respectively. Polymorphisms of DNA repair gene XRCC1 and XPD has recently been identified, and there is a growing body of evidence that these polymorphisms may(More)
We present findings on the associations between DNA adduct levels in breast tissue, risk of breast cancer, and polymorphisms in the DNA repair enzyme XPD. Breast cancer cases, benign breast disease (BBD) controls, and healthy controls were enrolled. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)–DNA adduct levels were measured by immunohistochemistry in breast(More)
Transplacental exposure to carcinogenic air pollutants from the combustion of fossil fuels is a growing health concern, given evidence of the heightened susceptibility of the fetus. These mutagenic/carcinogenic pollutants include aromatic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons that bind to DNA, forming chemical-DNA adducts. We have investigated(More)
In this matched case-control study nested within the prospective Physicians' Health Study, we evaluated whether DNA damage in blood samples collected at enrollment significantly predicted risk, consistent with our hypothesis that cases have greater biological susceptibility to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other aromatic tobacco carcinogens. The(More)
This molecular epidemiologic case-control study of lung cancer incorporated three complementary biomarkers: the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype, a potential marker of susceptibility, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts (PAH-DNA) and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), both indicators of environmentally induced genetic damage.(More)
Levels of aromatic DNA adducts in foundry workers and controls were followed at four annual samplings. During this time exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) decreased and the level of DNA adducts decreased accordingly. In the total group exposure was related to the level of adducts. Adduct levels correlated with urinary 1-hydroxypyrene(More)
Biomarkers such as DNA adducts have significant potential to improve quantitative risk assessment by characterizing individual differences in metabolism of genotoxins and DNA repair and accounting for some of the factors that could affect interindividual variation in cancer risk. Inherent uncertainty in laboratory measurements and within-person variability(More)
Oxidative DNA damage and antibodies to that damage have been implicated in lung, breast, and colorectal cancer. In this observational validation study, the relationship between anti-5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (HMdU) autoantibody (aAb) and plasma micronutrients was assessed in 140 heavy smokers by ELISA. Anti-HMdU aAbs were 50% higher in women after(More)