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Cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) is a major form of synaptic plasticity that is thought to be critical for certain types of motor learning. Phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 on serine-880 as well as interaction of GluR2 with PICK1 have been suggested to contribute to the endocytic removal of postsynaptic AMPA receptors during LTD.(More)
Synaptic activity-dependent gene expression is critical for certain forms of neuronal plasticity and survival in the mammalian nervous system, yet the mechanisms by which coordinated regulation of activity-induced genes supports neuronal function is unclear. Here, we show that deletion of serum response factor (SRF) in specific neuronal populations in adult(More)
Long-term depression (LTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) at cerebellar parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapses play critical roles in motor learning. The 1 Hz stimulation at PF-PC synapses induces a postsynaptically expressed LTP that requires a postsynaptic Ca(2+) transient, phosphatases, and nitric oxide (NO). However, the mechanism underlying 1(More)
It is widely thought that persistent, use-dependent alterations in synaptic strength such as long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP) and depression (LTD) underlie at least a portion of memory traces in the brain, but the exact cellular locus of expression for these alterations remains to be determined. They could be expressed presynaptically as a decrease in(More)
mTor kinase is involved in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. The roles of mTor activators, Rheb1 and Rheb2, have not been established in vivo. Here, we report that Rheb1, but not Rheb2, is critical for embryonic survival and mTORC1 signaling. Embryonic deletion of Rheb1 in neural progenitor cells abolishes mTORC1 signaling in developing brain(More)
BACKGROUND Zinc distributes widely in the central nervous system, especially in the hippocampus, amygdala and cortex. The dynamic balance of zinc is critical for neuronal functions. Zinc modulates the activity of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) through the direct inhibition and various intracellular signaling pathways. Abnormal NMDAR activities have(More)
BACKGROUND Acute and chronic ethanol exposure produces profound impairments in motor functioning. Individuals with lower sensitivity to the acute motor impairing effects of ethanol have an increased risk of developing alcohol dependence and abuse, and infants with subtle delays in motor coordination development may have an increased risk for subsequently(More)
The astroglial cell-specific glutamate transporter subtype 2 (excitatory amino acid transporter 2, GLT1) plays an important role in excitotoxicity that develops after damage to the central nervous system (CNS) is incurred. Both the protein kinase C signaling pathway and the epidermal growth factor (EGF) pathway have been suggested to participate in the(More)