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A novel sequence discovered in a computational screen appears distantly related to the p35 subunit of IL-12. This factor, which we term p19, shows no biological activity by itself; instead, it combines with the p40 subunit of IL-12 to form a novel, biologically active, composite cytokine, which we term IL-23. Activated dendritic cells secrete detectable(More)
We investigated the function of Lhx2, a LIM homeobox gene expressed in developing B-cells, forebrain and neural retina, by analyzing embryos deficient in functional Lhx2 protein. Lhx2 mutant embryos are anophthalmic, have malformations of the cerebral cortex, and die in utero due to severe anemia. In Lhx2-/- embryos specification of the optic vesicle(More)
BACKGROUND The cognitive continuum in the elderly population can be conceptually divided into those who are functioning normally (control subjects), those with a mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and those with probable AD. OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that the annualized rates of hippocampal atrophy differ as a function of both baseline and change in(More)
ATM, the gene mutated in the inherited human disease ataxia-telangiectasia, is a member of a family of kinases involved in DNA metabolism and cell-cycle checkpoint control. To help clarify the physiological roles of the ATM protein, we disrupted the ATM gene in mice through homologous recombination. Initial evaluation of the ATM knockout animals indicates(More)
A new, extremely thermophilic bacterium, designated strain MB4T, was isolated from a Chinese hot spring. The new isolate was an obligately anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, saccharolytic bacterium. Spore formation was not observed. Growth occurred at temperatures between 50 and 80 degrees C, with an optimum of around 75 degrees C; at pH values between(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the annual rates of volumetric change of the hippocampus and temporal horn in cognitively normal elderly control subjects and individually matched patients with AD, and to test the hypothesis that these rates were different. BACKGROUND Cross-sectional studies consistently reveal cerebral atrophy in elderly nondemented subjects(More)
OBJECTIVE MRI-based measurements of hippocampal atrophy are a sensitive indicator of the early pathologic degeneration of the medial temporal lobe in AD. However, AD pathology appears first in the transentorhinal/entorhinal cortex, not the hippocampus. The authors tested the hypothesis that MRI-based measurements of the entorhinal cortex are more sensitive(More)
Cells from individuals with the recessive cancer-prone disorder ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation (I-R). ATM (mutated in A-T) is a protein kinase whose activity is stimulated by I-R. c-Abl, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, interacts with ATM and is activated by ATM following I-R. Rad51 is a homologue of bacterial RecA(More)
It is generally believed that Drosophila melanogaster has no closely related species with which it can produce the viable and fertile hybrids that are essential for the genetic analysis of speciation. Following the recent report of molecular differentiation between a Zimbabwe, Africa, population and two United States populations, we provide evidence that(More)
The objective of this study was to determine an efficient way of detecting within-cultivar variation in rice varieties obtained from national and international germplasm collections. Seventy-one rice cultivars were evaluated for within-cultivar variation using a combination of phenotypic, RFLP, and microsatellite or simple sequence length polymorphism(More)