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The nature of information stemming from a single neuron and conveyed simultaneously to several hundred target neurons is not known. Triple and quadruple neuron recordings revealed that each synaptic connection established by neocortical pyramidal neurons is potentially unique. Specifically, synaptic connections onto the same morphological class differed in(More)
A puzzling feature of the neocortex is the rich array of inhibitory interneurons. Multiple neuron recordings revealed numerous electrophysiological-anatomical subclasses of neocortical gamma-aminobutyric acid-ergic (GABAergic) interneurons and three types of GABAergic synapses. The type of synapse used by each interneuron to influence its neighbors follows(More)
The onset latencies of single-unit responses evoked by flashing visual stimuli were measured in the parvocellular (P) and magnocellular (M) layers of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGNd) and in cortical visual areas V1, V2, V3, V4, middle temporal area (MT), medial superior temporal area (MST), and in the frontal eye field (FEF) in individual(More)
BACKGROUND In early breast cancer, variations in local treatment that substantially affect the risk of locoregional recurrence could also affect long-term breast cancer mortality. To examine this relationship, collaborative meta-analyses were undertaken, based on individual patient data, of the relevant randomised trials that began by 1995. METHODS(More)
Receptors for Wingless and other signalling molecules of the Wnt gene family have yet to be identified. We show here that cultured Drosophila cells transfected with a novel member of the frizzled gene family in Drosophila, Dfz2, respond to added Wingless protein by elevating the level of the Armadillo protein. Moreover, Wingless binds to Drosophila or human(More)
As a first step in a program to use genetically altered mice in the study of memory mechanisms, mutant mice were produced that do not express the alpha-calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II (alpha-CaMKII). The alpha-CaMKII is highly enriched in postsynaptic densities of hippocampus and neocortex and may be involved in the regulation of long-term(More)
We report the identities of the members of a group of proteins that associate with BRCA1 to form a large complex that we have named BASC (BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex). This complex includes tumor suppressors and DNA damage repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, ATM, BLM, and the RAD50-MRE11-NBS1 protein complex. In addition, DNA replication(More)
CONTEXT Human neurodevelopmental consequences of exposure to methyl-mercury (MeHg) from eating fish remain a question of public health concern. OBJECTIVE To study the association between MeHg exposure and the developmental outcomes of children in the Republic of Seychelles at 66 months of age. DESIGN A prospective longitudinal cohort study. (More)
Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) is essential for many enzymatic reactions, in which it serves to maintain prosthetic metal ions in their reduced forms (for example, Fe2+, Cu+), and for scavenging free radicals in order to protect tissues from oxidative damage. The facilitative sugar transporters of the GLUT type can transport the oxidized form of the vitamin,(More)
Only a small proportion of the mouse genome is transcribed into mature messenger RNA transcripts. There is an international collaborative effort to identify all full-length mRNA transcripts from the mouse, and to ensure that each is represented in a physical collection of clones. Here we report the manual annotation of 60,770 full-length mouse complementary(More)