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OBJECTIVES Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a pattern-associated receptor functioning in innate immunity that may be involved in the recognition of self-antigens and the production of pathogenic auto-antibodies. Therefore, we examined the expression of TLR9 in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to determine whether TLR9 is involved in the production of(More)
OBJECTIVES Although it has been reported that the numbers of both CD4(-)CD8(-) and CD4(+) natural killer T (NKT) cells are selectively decreased in the peripheral blood of patients with rheumatic diseases, there have been no reports concerning a novel subpopulation of CD8(+) NKT cells. To examine whether CD161(+)CD8(+) T cells, which are closely related to(More)
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