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The magnesium ion Mg2+ is a vital element involved in numerous physiological processes. Mg2+ has the largest hydrated radius among all cations, whereas its ionic radius is the smallest. It remains obscure how Mg2+ transporters selectively recognize and dehydrate the large, fully hydrated Mg2+ cation for transport. Recently the crystal structures of the CorA(More)
Newly synthesized membrane proteins must be accurately inserted into the membrane, folded and assembled for proper functioning. The protein YidC inserts its substrates into the membrane, thereby facilitating membrane protein assembly in bacteria; the homologous proteins Oxa1 and Alb3 have the same function in mitochondria and chloroplasts, respectively. In(More)
A carbonate system dynamics (CSD) model was developed in a fringing reef on the east coast of Ishigaki Island, southwest Japan, by incorporating organic and inorganic carbon fluxes (photosynthesis and calcification), air–sea gas exchanges, and benthic cover of coral and seagrass into a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The CSD model could reproduce(More)
An experimental system for serial femtosecond crystallography using an X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has been developed. It basically consists of a sample chamber, fluid injectors and a two-dimensional detector. The chamber and the injectors are operated under helium atmosphere at 1 atm. The ambient pressure operation facilitates applications to fluid(More)
Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family transporters are conserved in the three primary domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya), and export xenobiotics using an electrochemical gradient of H(+) or Na(+) across the membrane. MATE transporters confer multidrug resistance to bacterial pathogens and cancer cells, thus causing critical(More)
Serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography (SFX) has revolutionized atomic-resolution structural investigation by expanding applicability to micrometer-sized protein crystals, even at room temperature, and by enabling dynamics studies. However, reliable crystal-carrying media for SFX are lacking. Here we introduce a grease-matrix carrier for protein(More)
cDNA clones complementary to mRNA of neoplastic cells of human stomach tissue were used to examine quantitative changes in the mRNA levels of specific genes in neoplastic cells. Poly(A)+ RNA from poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cells of a female patient with stomach cancer was used for construction of a complementary DNA (cDNA) library. Screening of(More)