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A carbonate system dynamics (CSD) model was developed in a fringing reef on the east coast of Ishigaki Island, southwest Japan, by incorporating organic and inorganic carbon fluxes (photosynthesis and calcification), air–sea gas exchanges, and benthic cover of coral and seagrass into a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The CSD model could reproduce(More)
HTLV-1 (human T-cell leukaemia virus type 1) is the causative agent for ATL (adult T-cell leukaemia). HTLV-1 Tax can activate the PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase)/Akt signalling pathway, which is responsible for survival of HTLV-1-infected T-cells. HIFs (hypoxia-inducible factors) are transcriptional regulators that play a central role in the response to(More)
The authors present an outline of RACS and evaluate the economic effect of the diffusion of navigation system devices, assessing such quantities as the reduction of travel distance or travel time. The economic effect of the system is estimated with respect to the route selection behavior and logic of drivers. Infrastructure cost is estimated, and a(More)
Swallow and cough are complex motor patterns elicited by rapid and intense electrical stimulation of the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (ISLN). The laryngeal adductor response (LAR) includes only a laryngeal response, is elicited by single stimuli to the ISLN, and is thought to represent the brain stem pathway involved in laryngospasm. To(More)
Web services have become an indispensable part of the Internet and the world. We have learned their applicability in every aspects of human life which lead to the huge amount of Web traffic exchanged over the Internet everyday. This excessive popularity is also the cause that led to some troubles. Among them, Flash crowds and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks(More)
With the rapid development of the Internet, the P2P (peer-to-peer) technology which is characterized by no utilization of any servers with centralized functions has kept advancing apace. However, the wide use of the P2P application has lead to the illegal file sharing in addition to the rapid growth of network traffic. Thus, it has become an urgent(More)