— Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a stochastic global optimization algorithm inspired by social behavior of bird flocking in search for food, which is a simple but powerful, and widely used as a problem-solving technique to a variety of complex problems in science and engineering. A novel particle swarm optimization algorithm based on immunity-clonal… (More)
—Inspired from the biological immune system, we propose a local concentration (LC)-based feature extraction approach for anti-spam. The LC approach is considered to be able to effectively extract position-correlated information from messages by transforming each area of a message to a corresponding LC feature. Two implementation strategies of the LC… (More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied. METHOD The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness… (More)
Live combined Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium ameliorate murine experimental colitis by immunosuppression manifested by downregulation of TLRs, macrophages, Th1, and Th2 but upregulation of Tregs.
— A framework is developed to construct computational models of the human motor system (HMS) using iterative learning control (ILC) update structures. Optimal models of movement are introduced using a cost function that is motivated by learned human motion results. Three general ILC update structures are derived that each generate the required limiting… (More)
Intrauterine transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the main reasons for the failure of vaccination and plays an important role in areas with high HBV prevalence. In the present study, the quasispecies isolated from eight pairs of HBsAg-positive mothers and their neonates, who were infected with HBV by intrauterine transmission, were selected as… (More)