—Inspired from the biological immune system, we propose a local concentration (LC)-based feature extraction approach for anti-spam. The LC approach is considered to be able to effectively extract position-correlated information from messages by transforming each area of a message to a corresponding LC feature. Two implementation strategies of the LC… (More)
In this paper we propose the deontic logic dus, that formalizes reasoning about prescriptive obligations in update semantics. In dus the deenition of logical validity of obligations is not based on truth values but on action dynamics. You know the meaning of a normative sentence if you know the change it brings about in the betterness relation of anyone who… (More)
— Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a stochastic global optimization algorithm inspired by social behavior of bird flocking in search for food, which is a simple but powerful, and widely used as a problem-solving technique to a variety of complex problems in science and engineering. A novel particle swarm optimization algorithm based on immunity-clonal… (More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies support Beck's cognitive model of vulnerability to depression. However, the relationship between his cognitive triad and other clinical features and risk factors among those with major depression (MD) has rarely been systematically studied. METHOD The three key cognitive symptoms of worthlessness, hopelessness and helplessness… (More)
— A framework is developed to construct computational models of the human motor system (HMS) using iterative learning control (ILC) update structures. Optimal models of movement are introduced using a cost function that is motivated by learned human motion results. Three general ILC update structures are derived that each generate the required limiting… (More)
Live combined Bacillus subtilis and Enterococcus faecium ameliorate murine experimental colitis by immunosuppression manifested by downregulation of TLRs, macrophages, Th1, and Th2 but upregulation of Tregs.
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