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Superior vena cava syndrome is a group of symptoms arising from reduced blood flow from the superior vena cava to the right atrium. The causes of superior vena cava syndrome can be malignant or benign. Nearly 95% of cases are, however, the result of malignant diseases. Superior vena cava syndrome is characterised by swelling of the face, neck or upper limbs(More)
Bronchodilatation is preferably achieved with beta-2-agonists (SABA), salbutamol. Therapy is intensified with anticholinergics (ipratropium bromide monohydrate). A combined preparation may also be used (ipratropium bromide monohydrate and fenoterole hydrobromide). Methylxantines (theophylline) are the second line option. Corticosteroids are administered(More)
At times of respiratory insufficiency, mechanical ventilation (MV) provides support for or a substitution ofcertain components of the respiratory system. The aim of ventilation therapy is to achieve appropriate ventilation and oxygenation parameters and to minimize adverse events of MV. The main examples of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) are Continuous(More)
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