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Although the past few decades have seen rising incomes and increased government attention to rural development, many children in rural China still lack regular access to micronutrient-rich diets. Insufficient diets and poor knowledge of nutrition among the poor result in nutritional problems, including iron-deficiency anaemia, which adversely affect(More)
Applications of dairy farm effluents to land may lead to ammonia (NH3) volatilization and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Nitrogen (N) transformation process inhibitors, such as urease inhibitors (UIs) and nitrification inhibitors (NIs), have been used to reduce NH3 and N2O losses derived from agricultural N sources. The objective of this study was to(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of provision of free glasses on academic performance in rural Chinese children with myopia. DESIGN Cluster randomized, investigator masked, controlled trial. SETTING 252 primary schools in two prefectures in western China, 2012-13. PARTICIPANTS 3177 of 19,934 children in fourth and fifth grades (mean age 10.5 years) with(More)
Despite growing wealth in China, a significant share of children across rural China still have no access to iron-rich foods, vitamins, and other micronutrients. Such poor diets may result in high incidences of nutritional problems, including anemia. The objective of the study was to increase understanding of the extent of anemia, and identify structural(More)
Background. Despite growing wealth and a strengthening commitment from the government to provide quality education, a significant share of students across rural China still have inadequate access to micronutrient-rich regular diets. Such poor diets can lead to nutritional problems, such as iron-deficiency anemia, that can adversely affect attention and(More)
The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the purinergic receptor P2X3 in the peripheral and central nervous systems during acupuncture treatment for the visceral pain of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A total of 24 8-day-old Sprague–Dawley (SD) neonatal male rats (SPF grade) were stimulated using colorectal distention (CRD) when the rats were(More)
OBJECTIVES To test the impact of provider performance pay for anaemia reduction in rural China. DESIGN A cluster randomised trial of information, subsidies, and incentives for school principals to reduce anaemia among their students. Enumerators and study participants were not informed of study arm assignment. SETTING 72 randomly selected rural primary(More)
This contribution proposes a minimum bit error rate (MBER) decision feedback equaliser (DFE) designed for single-input multiple-output (SIMO) systems employing a quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulation scheme. It is shown that this MBER design is superior over the standard minimum mean square error DFE in the SIMO scenario considered, in terms of(More)
The normal ANK protein has a strong influence on anti-calcification. It is known that TGF-β1 is also able to induce extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (ePPi) elaboration via the TGF-β1-induced ank gene expression and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling acts as a downstream effector of TGF-β1. We hypothesized that the expression of the(More)
Over the past decade, China has implemented reforms designed to expand access to health care in rural areas. Little objective evidence exists, however, on the quality of that care. This study reports results from a standardized patient study designed to assess the quality of care delivered by village clinicians in rural China. To measure quality, we(More)