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In August 2007, an outbreak of equine influenza occurred among vaccinated racehorses with Japanese commercial equine influenza vaccine at Kanazawa Racecourse in Ishikawa prefecture in Japan. Apparent symptoms were pyrexia (38.2-41.0 degrees C) and nasal discharge with or without coughing, although approximately half of the infected horses were subclinical.(More)
Phylogenetic analysis of the five different regions (5' non-coding region (5'NCR), N(pro), E2, NS3 and NS5B-3'NCR) of 48 Japanese and reported bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genomes was performed. Japanese BVDVs were segregated into BVDV1 subdivided into six subgroups and BVDV2. One isolate, So CP/75, isolated in 1975 and previously proposed as subgroup(More)
Influenza A viruses cause recurrent outbreaks at local or global scale with potentially severe consequences for human health and the global economy. Recently, a new strain of influenza A virus was detected that causes disease in and transmits among humans, probably owing to little or no pre-existing immunity to the new strain. On 11 June 2009 the World(More)
H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses were isolated from dead wild waterfowl at Khunt, Erkhel, Doityn Tsagaan, Doroo, and Ganga Lakes in Mongolia in July 2005, May 2006, May 2009, July 2009, and May 2010, respectively. The isolates in 2005 and 2006 were classified into genetic clade 2.2, and those in 2009 and 2010 into clade 2.3.2. A/whooper(More)
Four H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses and an avirulent reassortant H5N1 virus were tested for their pathogenicity in domestic ducks. A/chicken/Yamaguchi/7/04 (H5N1) (Ck/Yamaguchi/04) isolated from a dead bird during the HPAI outbreak in Japan and A/duck/Yokohama/aq-10/03 (H5N1) (Dk/Yokohama/03) isolated from duck meat at a quarantine(More)
Avian influenza A viruses rarely infect humans; however, when human infection and subsequent human-to-human transmission occurs, worldwide outbreaks (pandemics) can result. The recent sporadic infections of humans in China with a previously unrecognized avian influenza A virus of the H7N9 subtype (A(H7N9)) have caused concern owing to the appreciable case(More)
 Genomic properties of 62 field isolates of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) collected from 1974 to 1999 in Japan were investigated. The 5′ untranslated region (UTR) was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the 244 to 247 base nucleotide sequences were determined. Serological properties were also characterized by the(More)
To investigate the prevalence of influenza viruses in feral water birds in the Southern Hemisphere, fecal samples of terns were collected on Heron Island, Australia, in December 2004. Six H2N5 influenza viruses were isolated. This is the first report of the isolation of the H2 subtype from shore birds in Australia. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the M(More)
Ten H9N2 influenza virus strains isolated from diseased chickens in different farms in China during 1995 to 1999 were antigenically and genetically characterized. The haemagglutinins of the isolates were not related to those of A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/97 (H9N2) (Qa/HK/G1/97), but were closely related to that of A/chicken/Hong Kong/G9/97 (H9N2) (Ck/HK/G9/97).(More)
The cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhoea virus (cp BVDV) strain KS86-1cp was isolated from a calf persistently infected with the noncytopathogenic (ncp) strain KS86-1ncp after it was exposed to cp BVDV strain Nose and developed mucosal disease (MD). Molecular analysis revealed that an insertion of a cellular gene and a duplication of the viral RNA encoding(More)