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Within-patient HIV evolution reflects the strong selection pressure driving viral escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) recognition. Whether this intrapatient accumulation of escape mutations translates into HIV evolution at the population level has not been evaluated. We studied over 300 patients drawn from the B- and C-clade epidemics, focusing on(More)
Coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) has recently been proposed and the proof-of-concept transmission experiments have shown its extreme robustness against chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion. In this paper, we first review the theoretical fundamentals for CO-OFDM and its channel model in a 2x2 MIMO-OFDM representation. We then present various(More)
Mammalian homologues of Drosophila Trp have been implicated to form channels that are activated following the depletion of Ca(2+) from internal stores. Recent studies indicate that actin redistribution is required for the activation of these channels. Here we show that murine Trp4 and Trp5, as well as phospholipase C beta1 and beta2 interact with the first(More)
Though the ischemic penumbra has been classically described on the basis of blood flow and physiologic parameters, a variety of ischemic penumbras can be described in molecular terms. Apoptosis-related genes induced after focal ischemia may contribute to cell death in the core and the selective cell death adjacent to an infarct. The HSP70 heat shock protein(More)
Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) transcriptional activation is mediated by the viral transactivator, Tax, and three 21-bp repeats (Tax response element [TxRE]) located in the U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat (LTR). Each TxRE contains a core cyclic AMP response element (CRE) flanked by 5' G-rich and 3' C-rich sequences. The TxRE(More)
The emergence of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) escape mutations in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteins has been anecdotally associated with progression to AIDS, but it has been difficult to determine whether viral mutation is the cause or the result of increased viral replication. Here we describe a perinatally HIV-infected child who(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffuse renal disease by diffusion-weighted echolanar magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (EPI). Thirty-four patients were examined with diffusion-weighted EPI. The average ADC values were 2.55 x 10(-3) mm2/sec for the cortex and 2.84 x 10(-3)(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate diffusion-weighted echo-planar magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for improving the specificity of characterization of liver tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS Diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging was performed with a 1.5-T whole-body imager with use of a body phased-array coil in 51 patients with 59 hepatic masses (41 malignant tumors, nine(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that potent anti-HIV-1 activity is mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs); however, the effects of this immune pressure on viral transmission and evolution have not been determined. Here we investigate mother-child transmission in the setting of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 expression, selected for analysis because it(More)
Microglia and astrocytes in the central nervous system are now recognized as active participants in various pathological conditions such as trauma, stroke, or chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Their activation is closely related with the development and severity of diseases. Interestingly, activation of microglia and astrocytes occurs with a spatially(More)