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Oral administration of ethanol (20% v/v) to male Sprague-Dawley rats for different periods of time up to 28 weeks resulted in profound reductions of acetylcholine content, in vitro synthesis and release of acetylcholine, choline uptake, activities of choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase and pyruvate decarboxylase, content of noradrenaline,(More)
Radioimmunoassay, chromatography and immunocytochemistry were used to study the occurrence of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the brain and gastrointestinal tract of the rat. In the brain, the highest concentrations of the peptide were found in the medulla oblongata (58.3 +/- 6.8 pmol/g) where immunocytochemistry showed the presence of immunoreactive(More)
Alcohol-induced memory impairment in man has been attributed to deficiencies in subcortical noradrenergic and cholinergic systems, as well as to damage in midbrain structures. Korsakoff's psychosis, a disease in which alcohol poisoning causes apparently irreversible memory defects, is characterized by lesions in cholinergic and noradrenergic nuclei and by a(More)
A massive neuronal system was detected by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to neuropeptide Y, the recently isolated peptide of the pancreatic polypeptide family. Immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers were most prevalent in cortical, limbic, and hypothalamic regions. Neuropeptide Y was extracted in concentrations higher than those of(More)
Lesions of the stria terminalis in the rat brain indicate that neuropeptide Y, a recently isolated peptide of the pancreatic polypeptide family, projects rostrally in an efferent pathway from the amygdaloid complex. Marked depletions of NPY-immunoreactivity observed by immunocytochemistry were apparent in the laterobasal septum and suprachiasmatic nucleus(More)
In order to identify the neuronal structures as well as the intracellular organelles which contain the newly discovered brain peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), we have localized this peptide by immunoelectron microscopy in brain areas containing high levels of NPY. Ultrastructural studies using both the pre- and post-embedding immunoperoxidase techniques have(More)
Two major features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are beta-amyloid protein (beta AP) deposition and a severe cholinergic deficit. An association between the two is suggested by the negative correlation found between cigarette smoking and AD. We sought to investigate this further by examining the effects of acute and chronic nicotine exposure on beta AP-induced(More)
The effects of two doses of muscarinic (arecoline and scopolamine) and nicotinic (nicotine and mecamylamine) cholinergic receptor agonists and antagonists on the radial maze errors of rats, performing poorly after ibotenate lesions to the nucleus basalis and medial septal brain regions, were assessed before and after transplantation of cholinergic-rich and(More)
Neurons identified by their immunoreactivity with antisera against neuropeptide Y (NPY) were studied in three selected areas of the cerebral cortex in brains from controls and in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (ATD). Changes were more profound in temporal cortex than in parietal cortex, and more severe in parietal cortex than in frontal cortex,(More)
The discovery of neuropeptides in mammalian nervous tissue has proceeded at an astonishing pace in recent years, encouraged by novel detection techniques which allow peptides to be extracted and sequenced before their biological activity has been determined (Mutt 1983; Sudcliffe et al. 1983). Most of these methods, poached from molecular biology, are(More)