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A massive neuronal system was detected by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to neuropeptide Y, the recently isolated peptide of the pancreatic polypeptide family. Immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers were most prevalent in cortical, limbic, and hypothalamic regions. Neuropeptide Y was extracted in concentrations higher than those of(More)
Radioimmunoassay, chromatography and immunocytochemistry were used to study the occurrence of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the brain and gastrointestinal tract of the rat. In the brain, the highest concentrations of the peptide were found in the medulla oblongata (58.3 +/- 6.8 pmol/g) where immunocytochemistry showed the presence of immunoreactive(More)
The distribution of neuropeptide Y in the developing rat brain was studied with immunocytochemistry, using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Immunoreactive perikarya were first seen on embryonic day 13 and staining of fibres appeared from embryonic day 15 onwards: perikaryal staining was generally more intense prenatally than after birth. Areas rich in(More)
Oral administration of ethanol (20% v/v) to male Sprague-Dawley rats for different periods of time up to 28 weeks resulted in profound reductions of acetylcholine content, in vitro synthesis and release of acetylcholine, choline uptake, activities of choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase and pyruvate decarboxylase, content of noradrenaline,(More)
Alcohol-induced memory impairment in man has been attributed to deficiencies in subcortical noradrenergic and cholinergic systems, as well as to damage in midbrain structures. Korsakoff's psychosis, a disease in which alcohol poisoning causes apparently irreversible memory defects, is characterized by lesions in cholinergic and noradrenergic nuclei and by a(More)
Lesions of the stria terminalis in the rat brain indicate that neuropeptide Y, a recently isolated peptide of the pancreatic polypeptide family, projects rostrally in an efferent pathway from the amygdaloid complex. Marked depletions of NPY-immunoreactivity observed by immunocytochemistry were apparent in the laterobasal septum and suprachiasmatic nucleus(More)
In order to identify the neuronal structures as well as the intracellular organelles which contain the newly discovered brain peptide, neuropeptide Y (NPY), we have localized this peptide by immunoelectron microscopy in brain areas containing high levels of NPY. Ultrastructural studies using both the pre- and post-embedding immunoperoxidase techniques have(More)
Chronic alcohol (20% v/v in drinking water for 28 weeks) impaired acquisition of radial maze spatial and associative tasks by increasing both within-trial working and long-term reference memory errors; animals with high (above the median of 100 mg/100 ml) blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) during treatment were significantly more impaired than those with(More)
Two major features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are beta-amyloid protein (beta AP) deposition and a severe cholinergic deficit. An association between the two is suggested by the negative correlation found between cigarette smoking and AD. We sought to investigate this further by examining the effects of acute and chronic nicotine exposure on beta AP-induced(More)
The effects of two doses of muscarinic (arecoline and scopolamine) and nicotinic (nicotine and mecamylamine) cholinergic receptor agonists and antagonists on the radial maze errors of rats, performing poorly after ibotenate lesions to the nucleus basalis and medial septal brain regions, were assessed before and after transplantation of cholinergic-rich and(More)