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A massive neuronal system was detected by immunocytochemistry and radioimmunoassay with antibodies to neuropeptide Y, the recently isolated peptide of the pancreatic polypeptide family. Immunoreactive cell bodies and fibers were most prevalent in cortical, limbic, and hypothalamic regions. Neuropeptide Y was extracted in concentrations higher than those of(More)
Oral administration of ethanol (20% v/v) to male Sprague-Dawley rats for different periods of time up to 28 weeks resulted in profound reductions of acetylcholine content, in vitro synthesis and release of acetylcholine, choline uptake, activities of choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase and pyruvate decarboxylase, content of noradrenaline,(More)
Radioimmunoassay and immunocytochemistry were used to study the distribution of galanin, a novel 29 amino acid porcine intestinal peptide, in the central nervous system of the rat and pig. The pattern of distribution was similar in the two species, with the highest concentrations of galanin-like immunoreactivity found in the neurohypophysis, hypothalamus(More)
The distribution of neuropeptide Y in the developing rat brain was studied with immunocytochemistry, using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase method. Immunoreactive perikarya were first seen on embryonic day 13 and staining of fibres appeared from embryonic day 15 onwards: perikaryal staining was generally more intense prenatally than after birth. Areas rich in(More)
Alcohol-induced memory impairment in man has been attributed to deficiencies in subcortical noradrenergic and cholinergic systems, as well as to damage in midbrain structures. Korsakoff's psychosis, a disease in which alcohol poisoning causes apparently irreversible memory defects, is characterized by lesions in cholinergic and noradrenergic nuclei and by a(More)
Two major features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are beta-amyloid protein (beta AP) deposition and a severe cholinergic deficit. An association between the two is suggested by the negative correlation found between cigarette smoking and AD. We sought to investigate this further by examining the effects of acute and chronic nicotine exposure on beta AP-induced(More)
Radioimmunoassay, chromatography and immunocytochemistry were used to study the occurrence of calcitonin gene-related peptide in the brain and gastrointestinal tract of the rat. In the brain, the highest concentrations of the peptide were found in the medulla oblongata (58.3 +/- 6.8 pmol/g) where immunocytochemistry showed the presence of immunoreactive(More)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactivity has been shown to be present in sympathetic nerve fibres in the rat pineal gland and a dense network of NPY-containing nerve fibres demonstrated to innervate the rat circle of Willis. The NPY content of the major rabbit intracranial arteries was determined by radioimmunoassay and maximal levels found in the anterior(More)
The frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices in normal human brains (Brodmann areas 10, 7a, 7b, and 21) are well endowed with numerous neurons, identifiable by immunoreactivity with antisera against the 36-amino acid brain peptide neuropeptide Y (NPY). These neurons with rare exception are small, intracortical, nonspiny neurons, 12-20 microns in somatic(More)
After ibotenate (10.0 mg/ml) lesions to the nucleus basalis and medial septal regions, at the source of the cortical and hippocampal branches of the forebrain cholinergic projection system, rats displayed long-lasting stable impairment in reference and working memory in both spatial (place) and associative (cue) radial maze tasks. Cell suspension(More)