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Air-bridge-type InGaAsP photonic crystal cavity lasers (PCCLs) have been fabricated by employing a combined lithographic technique of laser holography (LH) and photolithography. Cavities of 4-5 mum in diameter were formed photolithographically on a square-lattice photonic crystal background pattern which was predefined by the LH process. Despite structural(More)
Results are presented of beam tests in which a small electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of lead tungstate crystals was exposed to 50 GeV electrons and pions. This calorimeter was backed up by the DREAM Dual-Readout calorimeter, which measures the scintillation and Čerenkov light produced in the shower development, using two different media. The signals(More)
The contributions of neutrons to hadronic signals from the DREAM calorimeter are measured by analyzing the time structure of these signals. The neutrons, which mainly originate from the evaporation stage of nuclear breakup in the hadronic shower development process, contribute through elastic scattering off protons in the plastic scintillating fibers which(More)
Results are presented of detailed measurements of the signals generated by high-energy electrons and muons in lead tungstate crystals. A significant fraction of the light produced in these crystals and detected by photomultiplier tubes is the result of the Čerenkov mechanism. This is concluded from the angular dependence of the signals and from their time(More)
A new surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor is developed through theoretical and experimental investigation to detect the surface forces (wall pressure and wall friction) and the direction of the turbulent flow as a function of position and time on the structure. The sensor is composed of a pair of SAWs having an identical center frequency with surface waves(More)
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