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Coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) has recently been proposed and the proof-of-concept transmission experiments have shown its extreme robustness against chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion. In this paper, we first review the theoretical fundamentals for CO-OFDM and its channel model in a 2x2 MIMO-OFDM representation. We then present various(More)
Within-patient HIV evolution reflects the strong selection pressure driving viral escape from cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) recognition. Whether this intrapatient accumulation of escape mutations translates into HIV evolution at the population level has not been evaluated. We studied over 300 patients drawn from the B- and C-clade epidemics, focusing on(More)
Microglia and astrocytes in the central nervous system are now recognized as active participants in various pathological conditions such as trauma, stroke, or chronic neurodegenerative disorders. Their activation is closely related with the development and severity of diseases. Interestingly, activation of microglia and astrocytes occurs with a spatially(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and diffuse renal disease by diffusion-weighted echolanar magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (EPI). Thirty-four patients were examined with diffusion-weighted EPI. The average ADC values were 2.55 x 10(-3) mm2/sec for the cortex and 2.84 x 10(-3)(More)
The efficacy of NovaSil clay (NS) to reduce aflatoxin (AF) biomarkers of exposure was evaluated in 656 blood samples and 624 urine samples collected from study participants during a 3-month phase IIa clinical intervention trial in Ghana. NS was delivered before meals via capsules. Serum AFB (1)-albumin adduct was measured by radioimmunoassay and urinary AFM(More)
Though the ischemic penumbra has been classically described on the basis of blood flow and physiologic parameters, a variety of ischemic penumbras can be described in molecular terms. Apoptosis-related genes induced after focal ischemia may contribute to cell death in the core and the selective cell death adjacent to an infarct. The HSP70 heat shock protein(More)
Using microarray technology, we investigated whether the gene expression profile in white blood cells could be used as a fingerprint of different disease states. Adult rats were subjected to ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes, sham surgeries, kainate-induced seizures, hypoxia, or insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and compared with controls. The white blood(More)
Mechanisms associated with the progression of simple steatosis to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) remain undefined. Regulatory T cells (T(regs)) play a critical role in regulating inflammatory processes in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and because T helper type 17 (Th17) functionally oppose T(reg)-mediated responses, this study focused on(More)
Deceit is a core feature of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), and the study of deception in ASPD has important implications for identifying the underlying mechanism of ASPD. A great deal of functional neuroimaging literature has described the neural correlates of deception in healthy volunteers, but there have been few imaging studies examining people(More)
Increasing evidence indicates that potent anti-HIV-1 activity is mediated by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs); however, the effects of this immune pressure on viral transmission and evolution have not been determined. Here we investigate mother-child transmission in the setting of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 expression, selected for analysis because it(More)