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The origins of reflected light changes associated with neuronal activity (optical signals) were investigated in rat somatosensory cortex with optical imaging, microspectrophotometry, and laser-Doppler flowmetry, and dynamic changes in local hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation were focused on. Functional activation was carried out by 2-second, 5-Hz(More)
Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in Japan (incidence is 0.7-1.2 per 10,000 births), is characterized by congenital muscular dystrophy associated with brain malformation (micropolygria) due to a defect in the migration of neurons. We previously mapped the FCMD gene to a region of less(More)
Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8) is known as a murine model of accelerated aging and memory dysfunction. The binding activity of [3H] 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxam ide (PK-11195) as a neurochemical marker of gliosis markedly increased with aging in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of SAMP8. Immunoreactivity for(More)
Ninety-nine cases of Rett syndrome (RTT) diagnosed clinically (age range 3 years 6 months to 29 years 9 months) were evaluated for the ability of language. The presence of meaningful words, vocabularies, and ages at the start and disappearance of speech were assessed. Phenotype/genotype correlation was evaluated in 22 cases in whom mutations of the genes of(More)
Stress proteins located in the cytosol or endoplasmic reticulum (ER) maintain cell homeostasis and afford tolerance to severe insults. In neurodegenerative diseases, several chaperones ameliorate the accumulation of misfolded proteins triggered by oxidative or nitrosative stress, or of mutated gene products. Although severe ER stress can induce apoptosis,(More)
Recently, apoptosis has been implicated in the selective neuronal loss of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Apoptosis is regulated by the B cell leukemia-2 gene product (Bcl-2) family (Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bax, Bak and Bad) and the caspase family (ICH-1 and CPP32), with apoptosis being prevented by Bcl-2 and Bcl-x, and promoted by Bax, Bak, Bad, ICH-1 and CPP32. In the(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) is a system by which proteins accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are retrotranslocated to the cytosol and degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. HRD1 is expressed in brain neurons and acts as an ERAD ubiquitin ligase. Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is processed into amyloid-beta peptides(More)
and characterization of dendritic cells from common marmosets for preclinical cell therapy studies.dimensional stereotactic surface projection of brain perfusion SPECT improves diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease.201 single-photon emission computed tomography in the detection of retroperitoneal schwanoma. Evaluation of ischemic heart disease on a conventional(More)
Recent studies suggest that inflammatory activation occurs in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT1) may be activated in glial cells by a number of cytokines and then translocated from the cytosol to the(More)
The senescence accelerated mouse (SAM) is known as a murine model of aging. SAM consists of senescence accelerated-prone mouse (SAMP) and senescence accelerated-resistant mouse (SAMR). Previous studies reported that SAMP10 exhibits age-related learning impairments and behavioral depression in a tail suspension test after 7 months. We investigated the(More)