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The origins of reflected light changes associated with neuronal activity (optical signals) were investigated in rat somatosensory cortex with optical imaging, microspectrophotometry, and laser-Doppler flowmetry, and dynamic changes in local hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation were focused on. Functional activation was carried out by 2-second, 5-Hz(More)
Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), one of the most common autosomal recessive disorders in Japan (incidence is 0.7-1.2 per 10,000 births), is characterized by congenital muscular dystrophy associated with brain malformation (micropolygria) due to a defect in the migration of neurons. We previously mapped the FCMD gene to a region of less(More)
Senescence-accelerated mouse (SAMP8) is known as a murine model of accelerated aging and memory dysfunction. The binding activity of [3H] 1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxam ide (PK-11195) as a neurochemical marker of gliosis markedly increased with aging in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of SAMP8. Immunoreactivity for(More)
Neurophysiological studies on Rett syndrome (RTT) are reviewed, and pathophysiology of RTT is discussed. The electroencephalography (EEG), sensory evoked potentials (SEP), sleep-wake rhythm study and polysomnography (PSG) study showed age-dependent characteristics. PSG revealed the brainstem and midbrain monoaminergic systems are deranged from early(More)
Ninety-nine cases of Rett syndrome (RTT) diagnosed clinically (age range 3 years 6 months to 29 years 9 months) were evaluated for the ability of language. The presence of meaningful words, vocabularies, and ages at the start and disappearance of speech were assessed. Phenotype/genotype correlation was evaluated in 22 cases in whom mutations of the genes of(More)
Extensive alternative splicing and RNA editing have been documented for the transcript of DmNa(V) (formerly para), the sole sodium channel gene in Drosophila melanogaster. However, the functional consequences of these post-transcriptional modifications are not well understood. In this study we isolated 64 full-length DmNa(V) cDNA clones from D. melanogaster(More)
Recently, apoptosis has been implicated in the selective neuronal loss of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Apoptosis is regulated by the B cell leukemia-2 gene product (Bcl-2) family (Bcl-2, Bcl-x, Bax, Bak and Bad) and the caspase family (ICH-1 and CPP32), with apoptosis being prevented by Bcl-2 and Bcl-x, and promoted by Bax, Bak, Bad, ICH-1 and CPP32. In the(More)
An international group recommends that papers relating phenotypes to genotypes involving mutations in the X chromosome gene MECP2 should provide a minimum data set reporting the range of disturbances frequently encountered in Rett Syndrome. A simple scoring system is suggested which will facilitate comparison among the various clinical profiles. Features(More)
The cardinal pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered to be the increase in the activities of basal ganglia (BG) output nuclei, which excessively inhibits the thalamus and superior colliculus (SC) and causes preferential impairment of internal over external movements. Here we recorded saccade performance in 66 patients with PD and 87(More)
Alternative splicing is a major mechanism by which potassium and calcium channels increase functional diversity in animals. Extensive alternative splicing of the para sodium channel gene and developmental regulation of alternative splicing have been reported in Drosophila species. Alternative splicing has also been observed for several mammalian(More)