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Adaptation proceeds through the selection of mutations. The distribution of mutant fitness effect and the forces shaping this distribution are therefore keys to predict the evolutionary fate of organisms and their constituents such as enzymes. Here, by producing and sequencing a comprehensive collection of 10,000 mutants, we explore the mutational landscape(More)
Eukaryotic and archaeal translation initiation factor 2 (e/aIF2) is a heterotrimeric GTPase that has a crucial role in the selection of the correct start codon on messenger RNA. We report the 5-Å resolution crystal structure of the ternary complex formed by archaeal aIF2 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, the GTP analog GDPNP and methionylated initiator tRNA.(More)
To study the interaction of an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase with its cognate tRNAs, it is of interest to be able to design synthetic tRNA mutant genes, and to rapidly purify sufficient amounts of the corresponding tRNAs. A prerequisite is to show that the synthetase retains fall specificity towards a wild type tRNA expressed from a synthetic gene. For this(More)
The heterotrimeric factor e/aIF2 plays a central role in eukaryotic/archaeal initiation of translation. By delivering the initiator methionyl-tRNA to the ribosome, e/aIF2 ensures specificity of initiation codon selection. The three subunits of aIF2 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi could be overproduced in Escherichia coli. The beta and(More)
Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase activity from Escherichia coli ensures the recycling of peptidyl-tRNAs produced through abortion of translation. This activity, which is essential for cell viability, is carried out by a monomeric protein of 193 residues. The structure of crystalline peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase could be solved at 1.2 A resolution. It indicates a single(More)
The DNA sequence of a 2,100-bp region containing the argE gene from Escherichia coli has been determined. The nucleotide sequence of the ppc-argE intergenic region was also solved and shown to contain six tandemly repeated REP sequences. Moreover, the oxyR gene has been mapped on the E. coli chromosome and shown to flank the arg operon. The codon(More)
The crystal structure of Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNAfMet transformylase complexed with formyl-methionyl-tRNAfMet was solved at 2.8 A resolution. The formylation reaction catalyzed by this enzyme irreversibly commits methionyl-tRNAfMet to initiation of translation in eubacteria. In the three-dimensional model, the methionyl-tRNAfMet formyltransferase(More)
Initiation of translation in eukaryotes and in archaea involves eukaryotic/archaeal initiation factor (e/aIF)1 and the heterotrimeric initiation factor e/aIF2. In its GTP-bound form, e/aIF2 provides the initiation complex with Met-tRNA(i)(Met). After recognition of the start codon by initiator tRNA, e/aIF1 leaves the complex. Finally, e/aIF2, now in a(More)
The minimal polypeptide supporting full methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) activity is composed of four domains: a catalytic Rossmann fold, a connective peptide, a KMSKS domain, and a C-terminal alpha helix bundle domain. The minimal MetRS behaves as a monomer. In several species, MetRS is a homodimer because of a C-terminal domain appended to the core(More)
Cell growth inhibition by several d-amino acids can be explained by an in vivo production of d-aminoacyl-tRNA molecules. Escherichia coli and yeast cells express an enzyme, d-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase, capable of recycling such d-aminoacyl-tRNA molecules into free tRNA and d-amino acid. Accordingly, upon inactivation of the genes of the above deacylases, the(More)