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Adaptation proceeds through the selection of mutations. The distribution of mutant fitness effect and the forces shaping this distribution are therefore keys to predict the evolutionary fate of organisms and their constituents such as enzymes. Here, by producing and sequencing a comprehensive collection of 10,000 mutants, we explore the mutational landscape(More)
The heterotrimeric factor e/aIF2 plays a central role in eukaryotic/archaeal initiation of translation. By delivering the initiator methionyl-tRNA to the ribosome, e/aIF2 ensures specificity of initiation codon selection. The three subunits of aIF2 from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi could be overproduced in Escherichia coli. The beta and(More)
Eukaryotic and archaeal translation initiation factor 2 (e/aIF2) is a heterotrimeric GTPase that has a crucial role in the selection of the correct start codon on messenger RNA. We report the 5-Å resolution crystal structure of the ternary complex formed by archaeal aIF2 from Sulfolobus solfataricus, the GTP analog GDPNP and methionylated initiator tRNA.(More)
Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase activity from Escherichia coli ensures the recycling of peptidyl-tRNAs produced through abortion of translation. This activity, which is essential for cell viability, is carried out by a monomeric protein of 193 residues. The structure of crystalline peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase could be solved at 1.2 A resolution. It indicates a single(More)
The crystal structure of Escherichia coli methionyl-tRNAfMet transformylase complexed with formyl-methionyl-tRNAfMet was solved at 2.8 A resolution. The formylation reaction catalyzed by this enzyme irreversibly commits methionyl-tRNAfMet to initiation of translation in eubacteria. In the three-dimensional model, the methionyl-tRNAfMet formyltransferase(More)
Previous studies of phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase expression in Escherichia coli have established that the pheST operon transcription is controlled by a Phe-tRNA(Phe)-mediated attenuation mechanism. More recently, the himA gene, encoding the alpha-subunit of integration host factor, was recognized immediately downstream from pheT, possibly forming part of(More)
Cell growth inhibition by several d-amino acids can be explained by an in vivo production of d-aminoacyl-tRNA molecules. Escherichia coli and yeast cells express an enzyme, d-Tyr-tRNA(Tyr) deacylase, capable of recycling such d-aminoacyl-tRNA molecules into free tRNA and d-amino acid. Accordingly, upon inactivation of the genes of the above deacylases, the(More)
Methionine is the universal translation start but the first methionine is removed from most mature proteins. This review focuses on our present knowledge of the five enzymes sustaining the methionine pathway in translation initiation in Escherichia coli: methionyl-tRNA synthetase, methionyl-tRNA(fMet) formyltransferase, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase, peptide(More)
In bacteria, as well as in chloroplasts and mitochondria, the free amino group of the methionylated initiator tRNA(fMet) is specifically modified by the addition of a formyl group. The importance of this modification remains unclear. With the availability of pure Escherichia coli 10-formyltetrahydrofolate:L-methionyl-tRNA(fMet) N-formyltransferase, the(More)
Incorporation of noncanonical amino acids into cellular proteins often requires engineering new aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase activity into the cell. A screening strategy that relies on cell-surface display of reactive amino acid side-chains was used to identify a diverse set of methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) mutants that allow efficient incorporation of the(More)