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A data set of Holstein calving records from January 1996 to September 2004 comprising 4,103 herds with 2,304,278 calving events representing 1,164,233 cows and 96,069 twin births was extracted from Minnesota Dairy Herd Improvement Association archives to assess reported twinning trends and calf mortality across time. Overall, the reported twinning rate was(More)
The objectives were to infer heritability and genetic correlations between clinical mastitis (CM), milk fever (MF), ketosis (KET), and retained placenta (RP) within and between the first 3 lactations and to estimate genetic change over time for these traits. Records of 372,227 daughters of 2411 Norwegian Red (NRF) sires were analyzed with a 12-variate (4(More)
The objectives of this study were to examine genetic associations between clinical mastitis and somatic cell score (SCS) in early first-lactation cows, to estimate genetic correlations between SCS of cows with and without clinical mastitis, and to compare genetic evaluations of sires based on SCS or clinical mastitis. Clinical mastitis records from 15 d(More)
While natural selection might in some cases facilitate invasions into novel habitats, few direct measurements of selection response exist for invasive populations. This study examined selection response to changes in salinity using the copepod Eurytemora affinis. This copepod has invaded fresh water from saline habitats multiple times independently(More)
The potential of using electronically recorded data from on-farm milking parlor and herd management software programs for genetic evaluation of dairy sires for milking duration of their daughters was assessed in the present study. Single measurements of milking duration were collected weekly from 29 herds between June 1, 2003 and April 1, 2004. These(More)
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic variability of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis infection in US Holsteins. Blood and fecal samples were collected primarily from daughters of 12 bulls in their second or third lactation. Routine disease testing of the sires documented that they were not infected. Herds without a "suspect" or(More)
PURPOSE A cohort study was carried out to test the hypothesis that higher vitamin D levels reduce the risk of relapse from melanoma. METHODS A pilot retrospective study of 271 patients with melanoma suggested that vitamin D may protect against recurrence of melanoma. We tested these findings in a survival analysis in a cohort of 872 patients recruited to(More)
We have carried out melanoma case-control comparisons for six vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) levels in order to investigate the role of vitamin D in melanoma susceptibility. There was no significant evidence of an association between any VDR SNP and risk in 1028 population-ascertained(More)
BACKGROUND Melanoma risk is related to sun exposure; we have investigated risk variation by tumour site and latitude. METHODS We performed a pooled analysis of 15 case-control studies (5700 melanoma cases and 7216 controls), correlating patterns of sun exposure, sunburn and solar keratoses (three studies) with melanoma risk. Pooled odds ratios (pORs) and(More)
Many studies have reported quantitative trait loci on chromosome 6 that affect milk production traits in dairy cattle. Osteopontin (OPN) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) are located in the middle of chromosome 6 about 6 Mb apart, which is approximately 12 cM. The objective of this study was to investigate(More)