Learn More
A novel sequence discovered in a computational screen appears distantly related to the p35 subunit of IL-12. This factor, which we term p19, shows no biological activity by itself; instead, it combines with the p40 subunit of IL-12 to form a novel, biologically active, composite cytokine, which we term IL-23. Activated dendritic cells secrete detectable(More)
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is the molecular target for catatoxic steroids such as pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), which induce cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) expression and protect the body from harmful chemicals. In this study, we demonstrate that PXR is activated by the toxic bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) and its 3-keto metabolite. Furthermore,(More)
Hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death, is frequently associated with plant disease resistance. It has been proposed that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades regulate HR cell death based on pharmacological studies by using kinase inhibitors. However, direct evidence is lacking. Here, we demonstrate that NtMEK2, a MAPK(More)
The cpr5 mutant was identified from a screen for constitutive expression of systemic acquired resistance (SAR). This single recessive mutation also leads to spontaneous expression of chlorotic lesions and reduced trichome development. The cpr5 plants were found to be constitutively resistant to two virulent pathogens, Pseudomonas syringae pv maculicola(More)
Geminivirus isolates associated with the epidemic of severe cassava mosaic disease in Uganda were studied and compared with virus isolates from the part of Uganda outside the epidemic area, and with African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV). Isolates of a novel type [the Uganda variant (UgV)] were detected in severely(More)
The frequency of poor metabolizers of debrisoquin was low and similar in four different native Chinese nationalities. In a total sample of 695 Chinese subjects, only seven (1.01%) had a urinary ratio between debrisoquin and 4-hydroxydebrisoquin greater than 12.6, which is the antimode between poor metabolizers and extensive metabolizers in white(More)
A new, extremely thermophilic bacterium, designated strain MB4T, was isolated from a Chinese hot spring. The new isolate was an obligately anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-negative, saccharolytic bacterium. Spore formation was not observed. Growth occurred at temperatures between 50 and 80 degrees C, with an optimum of around 75 degrees C; at pH values between(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the neural correlates of Chinese character and word reading. The Chinese stimuli were presented visually, one at a time. Subjects covertly generated a word that was semantically related to each stimulus. Three sorts of Chinese items were used: single characters having precise meanings, single(More)
Neurological disorders develop in most people infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we report that binding of HIV-1 transactivator (Tat) protein to low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) promoted efficient uptake of Tat into neurons. LRP-mediated uptake of(More)
We calculated the potential H(2) and formate diffusion between microbes and found that at H(2) concentrations commonly found in nature, H(2) could not diffuse rapidly enough to dispersed methanogenic cells to account for the rate of methane synthesis but formate could. Our calculations were based on individual organisms dispersed in the medium, as supported(More)