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The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is the molecular target for catatoxic steroids such as pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), which induce cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) expression and protect the body from harmful chemicals. In this study, we demonstrate that PXR is activated by the toxic bile acid lithocholic acid (LCA) and its 3-keto metabolite. Furthermore,(More)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent mitogen specific for endothelial cells. Its expression is dramatically induced by low oxygen tension in a variety of cell types, and it has been suggested to be a key mediator of hypoxia-induced angiogenesis. Although VEGF action is targeted to endothelial cells, it is generally believed that these cells(More)
Green fluorescence protein (GFP)-based fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) is increasingly used in investigation of inter- and intramolecular interactions in living cells. In this report, we present a modified method for FRET quantification in cultured cells using conventional fluorescence microscopy. To reliably measure FRET, three positive(More)
Interlocked feedback loops may represent a common feature among the regulatory systems controlling circadian rhythms. The Neurospora circadian feedback loops involve white collar-1 (wc-1), wc-2, and frequency (frq) genes. We show that WC-1 and WC-2 proteins activate the transcription of frq gene, whereas FRQ protein plays dual roles: repressing its own(More)
Identification and characterization of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) as a key regulator of cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) gene expression has led to an increased understanding of the molecular basis of many drug-drug interactions. Mice lacking PXR (PXR-KO) were used in the present study to delineate the role of PXR in regulating hepatomegaly and regulating the(More)
The TET (ten–eleven translocation) family of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG)-dependent dioxygenases catalyzes the sequential oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine and 5-carboxylcytosine, leading to eventual DNA demethylation. The TET2 gene is a bona fide tumor suppressor frequently mutated in leukemia, and TET enzyme(More)
To assess the physiological function of Ca(2+)-dependent protein phosphatase (PP2B) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the phenotypes of PP2B-deficient mutants were investigated. Although PP2B was dispensable for growth under normal conditions, the mutations did, however, cause growth inhibition under certain stress circumstances. The growth of the(More)
Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a developmental program of signaling pathways that determine commitment to epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. In the prostate, EMT processes have been implicated in benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer progression. In a model of Pten- and TP53-null prostate adenocarcinoma that progresses via(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), a transcription factor that is critical for tumor adaptation to microenvironmental stimuli, represents an attractive chemotherapeutic target. YC-1 is a novel antitumor agent that inhibits HIF-1 through previously unexplained mechanisms. In the present study, YC-1 was found to prevent HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta accumulation(More)
Arsenic (As) is an environmental chemical of high concern for human health. Acute toxicity of arsenic is dependent on its chemical forms and proximity to high local arsenic concentrations is one of the mechanisms for cell death. This study was designed to define acute arsenic-induced stress-related gene expression in vivo. Mice were injected sc with either(More)