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We have shown that Rop1At, a pollen-specific Rop GTPase that is a member of the Rho family of small GTP binding proteins, acts as a key molecular switch controlling tip growth in Arabidopsis pollen tubes. Pollen-specific expression of constitutively active rop1at mutants induced isotropic growth of pollen tubes. Overexpression of wild-type Arabidopsis(More)
Variation in the CYP3A enzymes, which act in drug metabolism, influences circulating steroid levels and responses to half of all oxidatively metabolized drugs. CYP3A activity is the sum activity of the family of CYP3A genes, including CYP3A5, which is polymorphically expressed at high levels in a minority of Americans of European descent and Europeans(More)
1. We have studied the sensations evoked by threshold microstimulation (TMS) in the area of the human principal sensory nucleus of the thalamus [ventralis caudalis (Vc)] in patients (n = 11) undergoing stereotactic surgery for the treatment of movement disorders and pain. Preoperatively, patients were trained to describe somatic sensory stimuli using a(More)
Mycorrhizal symbioses--the union of roots and soil fungi--are universal in terrestrial ecosystems and may have been fundamental to land colonization by plants. Boreal, temperate and montane forests all depend on ectomycorrhizae. Identification of the primary factors that regulate symbiotic development and metabolic activity will therefore open the door to(More)
Regulation of neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) by protein kinases is critical in synaptic transmission. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying protein kinase C (PKC) potentiation of NMDARs are uncertain. Here we demonstrate that PKC increases NMDA channel opening rate and delivers new NMDA channels to the plasma membrane through(More)
We examined the dietary intake and sources of isoflavones (daidzein and genistein) among Japanese subjects based on dietary records (DRs). The subjects comprised two groups: 1,232 who completed one-day DRs (Group 1) and 88 men and women who kept four four-day (16-day) DRs. For quantitative data on the level of daidzein and genistein in soy foods, we(More)
A population of neurons in the area of human thalamic nucleus ventralis caudalis (Vc) respond to noxious heat stimuli. In the cutaneous core of Vc 6% (6/108) of recorded neurons had a significantly greater response to noxious heat stimuli than to innocuous control stimuli. Half of these neurons (n = 3) also responded to innocuous cold stimuli. Within the(More)
The death domain kinase RIP and the TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) are essential effectors in TNF signaling. To understand the mechanism by which RIP and TRAF2 regulate TNF-induced activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, we investigated their respective roles in TNF-R1-mediated IKK activation using both RIP-/- and TRAF2-/- fibroblasts.(More)
The checkpoint protein Mad2 inhibits the activity of the anaphase promoting complex by sequestering Cdc20 until all chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate. We report the solution structure of human Mad2 and its interaction with Cdc20. Mad2 possesses a novel three-layered alpha/beta fold with three alpha-helices packed between two beta-sheets. Using(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) (Apo2 ligand [Apo2L]) is a member of the TNF superfamily and has been shown to have selective antitumor activity. Although it is known that TRAIL (Apo2L) induces apoptosis and activates NF-kappaB and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) through receptors such as TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5),(More)