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Variation in the CYP3A enzymes, which act in drug metabolism, influences circulating steroid levels and responses to half of all oxidatively metabolized drugs. CYP3A activity is the sum activity of the family of CYP3A genes, including CYP3A5, which is polymorphically expressed at high levels in a minority of Americans of European descent and Europeans(More)
We have shown that Rop1At, a pollen-specific Rop GTPase that is a member of the Rho family of small GTP binding proteins, acts as a key molecular switch controlling tip growth in Arabidopsis pollen tubes. Pollen-specific expression of constitutively active rop1at mutants induced isotropic growth of pollen tubes. Overexpression of wild-type Arabidopsis(More)
It was previously shown that CYP3A4 is induced in the human intestinal Caco-2 cell model by treatment with 1alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25-D3). We demonstrate the vitamin D analog, 19-nor-1alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D2, is also an effective inducer of CYP3A4 in Caco-2 cells, but with half the potency of 1,25-D3. We report that treatment of LS180 cells,(More)
PTEN tumor suppressor is frequently mutated in human cancers and is a negative regulator of PI3'K/PKB/Akt-dependent cellular survival. Investigation of the human genomic PTEN locus revealed a p53 binding element directly upstream of the PTEN gene. Deletion and mutation analyses showed that this element is necessary for inducible transactivation of PTEN by(More)
Although the molecular mechanisms of TNF signaling have been largely elucidated, the principle that regulates the balance of life and death is still unknown. We report here that the death domain kinase RIP, a key component of the TNF signaling complex, was cleaved by Caspase-8 in TNF-induced apoptosis. The cleavage site was mapped to the aspartic acid at(More)
G proteins are universal molecular switches in eukaryotic signal transduction. The Arabidopsis genome sequence reveals no RAS small GTPase and only one or a few heterotrimeric G proteins, two predominant classes of signaling G proteins found in animals. In contrast, Arabidopsis possesses a unique family of 11 Rop GTPases that belong to the Rho family of(More)
Regulation of neuronal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) by protein kinases is critical in synaptic transmission. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying protein kinase C (PKC) potentiation of NMDARs are uncertain. Here we demonstrate that PKC increases NMDA channel opening rate and delivers new NMDA channels to the plasma membrane through(More)
CD39, or vascular adenosine triphosphate diphosphohydrolase, has been considered an important inhibitor of platelet activation. Unexpectedly, cd39-deficient mice had prolonged bleeding times with minimally perturbed coagulation parameters. Platelet interactions with injured mesenteric vasculature were considerably reduced in vivo and purified mutant(More)
The checkpoint protein Mad2 inhibits the activity of the anaphase promoting complex by sequestering Cdc20 until all chromosomes are aligned at the metaphase plate. We report the solution structure of human Mad2 and its interaction with Cdc20. Mad2 possesses a novel three-layered alpha/beta fold with three alpha-helices packed between two beta-sheets. Using(More)
Enterovirus 71 (EV71), the newest member of Enteroviridae, is notable for its etiological role in epidemics of severe neurological diseases in children. Developing effective vaccines is considered a top choice among all control measures. We compared the inactivated virus vaccine (10 microg protein/mouse) with subunit vaccines--VP1 DNA vaccine (100(More)