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Metformin is a widely used drug for treatment of type 2 diabetes with no defined cellular mechanism of action. Its glucose-lowering effect results from decreased hepatic glucose production and increased glucose utilization. Metformin's beneficial effects on circulating lipids have been linked to reduced fatty liver. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a(More)
The SPIDER system has evolved into a comprehensive tool set for image processing, making use of modern graphics interfacing in the VMS and UNIX environment. SPIDER and WEB handle the complementary tasks of batch processing and visualization of the results. The emphasis of the SPIDER system remains in the area of single particle averaging and reconstruction,(More)
Wnt glycoproteins have been implicated in diverse processes during embryonic patterning in metazoa. They signal through frizzled-type seven-transmembrane-domain receptors to stabilize beta-catenin. Wnt signalling is antagonized by the extracellular Wnt inhibitor dickkopf1 (dkk1), which is a member of a multigene family. dkk1 was initially identified as a(More)
The upper cervical corticospinal tract was transected on one side in adult rats. A suspension of ensheathing cells cultured from adult rat olfactory bulb was injected into the lesion site. This induced unbranched, elongative growth of the cut corticospinal axons. The axons grew through the transplant and continued to regenerate into the denervated caudal(More)
This assay for superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity involves inhibition of nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, with xanthine-xanthine oxidase used as a superoxide generator. By using a reaction terminator, we can determine 40 samples within 55 min. One unit of activity of pure bovine liver Cu,ZnSOD and chicken liver MnSOD was expressed by 30 ng and(More)
Intracellular recordings were made from sacrocaudal tail motoneurons of acute and chronic spinal rats to examine whether plateau potentials contribute to spasticity associated with chronic injury. The spinal cord was transected at the S2 level, causing, over time, exaggerated long-lasting reflexes (hyperreflexia) associated with a general spasticity(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We tested the hypothesis that intravenous infusion of bone marrow derived-marrow stromal cells (MSCs) enter the brain and reduce neurological functional deficits after stroke in rats. METHODS Rats (n=32) were subjected to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Test groups consisted of MCAO alone (group 1, n=6);(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBC) are rich in stem and progenitor cells. In this study we tested whether intravenously infused HUCBC enter brain, survive, differentiate, and improve neurological functional recovery after stroke in rats. In addition, we tested whether ischemic brain tissue extract selectively induces chemotaxis(More)
We report here the reconstitution of the de novo procaspase-9 activation pathway using highly purified cytochrome c, recombinant APAF-1, and recombinant procaspase-9. APAF-1 binds and hydrolyzes ATP or dATP to ADP or dADP, respectively. The hydrolysis of ATP/dATP and the binding of cytochrome c promote APAF-1 oligomerization, forming a large multimeric(More)
AIM To establish clone cells with different metastatic potential for the study of metastasis-related mechanisms. METHODS Cloning procedure was performed on parental hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line MHCC97, and biological characteristics of the target clones selected by in vivo screening were studied. RESULTS Two clones with high (MHCC97-H) and(More)