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Results are reported from a long-term field experiment designed to determine the effect of irrigation water salinity on the yield and water uptake of mature grapefruit trees. Treatments were started in 1970 and consisted of chloride concentrations in the irrigation water of 7.1, 11.4 and 17.1 meq/1 added as NaCl+CaCl2 at a 1 : 1 weight ratio. For the last(More)
Citrus is considered to be specifically sensitive to chloride and sodium, yet little data exist to show the effect of these ions on yield. An experiment was started in 1978 to study the effect of sodic irrigation water on yield. The treatments were SAR of the irrigation water of 2.8-(L), 5.5-(M), and 10.3-(H) (mol/m3)1/2 $$({\text{SAR = Na}}^{\text{ + }}(More)
A spray combustor, with flow velocities in the laminar range, exhibits a unique operating mode where large amplitude, self-induced oscillations of the flame shape occur. The phenomenon, not previously encountered, only occurs when fuel is supplied in the form of fine liquid droplets and does not occur when fuel is supplied in gaseous form. Several flow(More)
It is shown that strong optical filters that are included in a ULH system can suppress, or enhance amplitude noise depending on their positioning. Our study explains the improvement measured in a 60-span system with 10 band-limited DGEs. Understanding of the physical mechanism allows the realization of same and better performance improvement as in the(More)
Rough lemon citrus seedlings were inoculated withFusarium solani and evaluated for changes in water relations of leaves, stems, and roots. Inoculated seedlings had decreased leaf stomatal conductance, lower leaf water potential, lower water content, and higher leaf osmotic values compared to healthy plants. Visible wilt symptoms occurred as early as 24 h(More)
The accumulation of amplitude jitter in ultralong-haul (ULH) systems deploying strong optical filters is studied. It is shown that in such systems that operate with nonsoliton waveforms, the selective inclusion of filters may lead to the enhancement or suppression of amplitude noise accumulation, depending on the filter's positioning. This paper explains(More)
Orchard trials on the effect of salinity on fruit tree rootstock combinations typically call for leaving border trees between treatments, thus limiting the number of combinations that can be evaluated and making these experiments expensive and rare. Five salinity dilution ratios were applied to orchard trees through regular drip lines by different(More)
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