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Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activators, and insulin sensitizers represent drugs used to treat hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with a twofold increase in fracture risk, and TZDs use increases this risk by an additional twofold. In this study, we analyzed the(More)
It is known that insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with increased fractures and that brown adipose tissue (BAT) counteracts many if not all of the symptoms associated with type 2 diabetes. By the use of FoxC2(AD)(+/Tg) mice, a well-established model for induction of BAT, or beige fat, we present data extending the beneficial(More)
The signal transducing protein Stat3 activates gene transcription in cells in response to multiple cytokines. Constitutive activation of Stat3 has been observed in solid tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Stat3 activation in cancer has been associated with autocrine stimulatory loops and is believed to convey a growth advantage to(More)
We propose a biosensor by exploiting localized plasmons in graphene and biomolecule adsorption on it. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the sensitivity of such a device can achieve a high value of up to 1697 nm/RIU (refractive index unit) when the wavelength shift at the plasmon resonance is detected. The transparent substrate supporting graphene can(More)
Lineage allocation of the marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to osteoblasts and adipocytes is dependent on both Wnt signaling and PPARγ2 activity. Activation of PPARγ2, an essential regulator of energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity, stimulates adipocyte and suppresses osteoblast differentiation and bone formation, and correlates with decreased bone(More)
Currently, the performances of thin film solar cells are limited by poor light absorption and carrier collection. In this research, large, broadband, and polarization-insensitive light absorption enhancement was realized via integrating with unique metallic nanogratings. Through simulation, three possible mechanisms were identified to be responsible for(More)
Experimental electrical double-layer capacitances of porous carbon electrodes fall below ideal values, thus limiting the practical energy densities of carbon-based electrical double-layer capacitors. Here we investigate the origin of this behaviour by measuring the electrical double-layer capacitance in one to five-layer graphene. We find that the(More)
Second-harmonic generation (SHG) in PPKTP, PPMgSLT, and PPMgLN crystals is analyzed by frequency-doubling CW light from a 1064 nm fiber laser over a range of powers up to 10 W. Data for fundamental powers less than 3 W is used to determine the effects of the fundamental laser linewidth on SHG and to identify imperfections in the periodicity and boundary(More)
Extraordinary optical transmission spectrum for a two-dimensional metallic hole array (2D-MHA) changes with the hole channel shape. In this paper a new converging-diverging channel (CDC) shape is proposed. A three-dimensional (3D) finite element method is utilized to analyze the transmission characteristics of the 2D-MHA with CDC. The transmission peaks are(More)
This paper proposes a metallic hole array of a rectangular converging-diverging channel (RCDC) shape with extraordinary transmission. We use a three-dimensional (3D) finite element method to analyze the transmission characteristics of two-dimensional metallic hole arrays (2D-MHA) with RCDC. For a straight channel MHA, when the aperture size is reduced, the(More)