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Two Arabidopsis thaliana genes have been shown to function in vacuolar sorting of seed storage proteins: a vacuolar sorting receptor, VSR1/ATELP1, and a retromer component, MAIGO1 (MAG1)/VPS29. Here, we show an efficient and simple method for isolating vacuolar sorting mutants of Arabidopsis. The method was based on two findings in this study. First, VSR1(More)
Adaptor protein (AP) complexes play critical roles in protein sorting among different post-Golgi pathways by recognizing specific cargo protein motifs. Among the five AP complexes (AP-1-AP-5) in plants, AP-4 is one of the most poorly understood; the AP-4 components, AP-4 cargo motifs, and AP-4 functional mechanism are not known. Here, we identify the AP-4(More)
A simple and reliable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method was developed for switchgrass. Using this method, many transgenic plants carrying multiple genes-of-interest could be produced without untransformed escape. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a promising biomass crop for bioenergy. To obtain transgenic switchgrass plants carrying a(More)
A significant feature of plant cells is the extensive motility of organelles and the cytosol, which was originally defined as cytoplasmic streaming. We suggested previously that a three-way interaction between plant-specific motor proteins myosin XIs, actin filaments, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. (1)(More)
Two advanced 32-bit microprocessors, the V60 and V70 ( mu PD70616 and mu PD70632, respectively), and their support functions for operating systems and high-reliability systems are described. Three operating system functions, namely, the virtual memory support functions, context-switch functions, and asynchronous trap functions are examined. A basic(More)
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