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Seed storage proteins are synthesized on rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as larger precursors and are sorted to protein storage vacuoles, where they are converted into the mature forms. We report here an Arabidopsis mutant, maigo 1 (mag1), which abnormally accumulates the precursors of two major storage proteins, 12S globulin and 2S albumin, in dry seeds.(More)
Two Arabidopsis thaliana genes have been shown to function in vacuolar sorting of seed storage proteins: a vacuolar sorting receptor, VSR1/ATELP1, and a retromer component, MAIGO1 (MAG1)/VPS29. Here, we show an efficient and simple method for isolating vacuolar sorting mutants of Arabidopsis. The method was based on two findings in this study. First, VSR1(More)
Myrosin cells in Capparales plants are idioblasts that accumulate thioglucoside glucohydrolase (TGG, also called myrosinase), which hydrolyzes glucosinolates to produce toxic compounds for repelling pests. Here, we show that AtVAM3 is involved in development of myrosin cells. It has been shown that yeast VAM3 is a Q(a)-SNARE that is involved in vesicle(More)
Adaptor protein (AP) complexes play critical roles in protein sorting among different post-Golgi pathways by recognizing specific cargo protein motifs. Among the five AP complexes (AP-1-AP-5) in plants, AP-4 is one of the most poorly understood; the AP-4 components, AP-4 cargo motifs, and AP-4 functional mechanism are not known. Here, we identify the AP-4(More)
A simple and reliable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method was developed for switchgrass. Using this method, many transgenic plants carrying multiple genes-of-interest could be produced without untransformed escape. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a promising biomass crop for bioenergy. To obtain transgenic switchgrass plants carrying a(More)
The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is a tubular-vesicular organelle that matures from the trans cisternae of the Golgi apparatus. In plants, the TGN functions as a central hub for three trafficking pathways: the secretory pathway, the vacuolar trafficking pathway and the endocytic pathway. Here, we describe a novel TGN-localized membrane protein, CONTINUOUS(More)
Two advanced 32-bit microprocessors, the V60 and V70 ( mu PD70616 and mu PD70632, respectively), and their support functions for operating systems and high-reliability systems are described. Three operating system functions, namely, the virtual memory support functions, context-switch functions, and asynchronous trap functions are examined. A basic(More)
A significant feature of plant cells is the extensive motility of organelles and the cytosol, which was originally defined as cytoplasmic streaming. We suggested previously that a three-way interaction between plant-specific motor proteins myosin XIs, actin filaments, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. (1)(More)
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