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Two Arabidopsis thaliana genes have been shown to function in vacuolar sorting of seed storage proteins: a vacuolar sorting receptor, VSR1/ATELP1, and a retromer component, MAIGO1 (MAG1)/VPS29. Here, we show an efficient and simple method for isolating vacuolar sorting mutants of Arabidopsis. The method was based on two findings in this study. First, VSR1(More)
A simple and reliable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method was developed for switchgrass. Using this method, many transgenic plants carrying multiple genes-of-interest could be produced without untransformed escape. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a promising biomass crop for bioenergy. To obtain transgenic switchgrass plants carrying a(More)
Adaptor protein (AP) complexes play critical roles in protein sorting among different post-Golgi pathways by recognizing specific cargo protein motifs. Among the five AP complexes (AP-1-AP-5) in plants, AP-4 is one of the most poorly understood; the AP-4 components, AP-4 cargo motifs, and AP-4 functional mechanism are not known. Here, we identify the AP-4(More)
A significant feature of plant cells is the extensive motility of organelles and the cytosol, which was originally defined as cytoplasmic streaming. We suggested previously that a three-way interaction between plant-specific motor proteins myosin XIs, actin filaments, and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was responsible for cytoplasmic streaming. (1)(More)
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