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Visual hallucinations (VHs) are common psychiatric symptoms in patients with long-standing Parkinson's disease (PD). Treatment with neuroleptics or withdrawal of anti-PD drugs may improve VHs but will worsen motor dysfunctions. The authors report on 3 patients with long-standing PD who were treated with the cholinesterase inhibitor donepezil for the(More)
Deficiency in energy supply, such as occurs during hypoxia, anoxia, metabolic stress and mitochondrial failure, strongly affects the excitability of central neurons. Such lowered energy supply evokes various changes in spontaneous synaptic input to the hippocampal and cortical neurons. However, how this energy deprivation affects synaptic input to motor(More)
We recently showed using prepro-orexin knockout (ORX-KO) mice and orexin neuron-ablated (ORX-AB) mice that orexin neurons in the hypothalamus, but not orexin peptides per se, are indispensable for stress-induced thermogenesis. To examine whether orexin neurons are more generally involved in central thermoregulatory mechanisms, we applied other forms of(More)
OBJECTIVE This study aimed to examine whether the volume of the olfactory bulbs and tracts (OB & T) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful for differentiating Parkinson's disease (PD) from PD-related disorders. METHODS The study group comprised 13 patients with PD, 11 with multiple system atrophy (MSA), five with progressive supranuclear palsy, and(More)
Glycinergic neurons provide an important mechanism to control excitation of motoneurons in the brainstem and a reduction or loss of glycinergic inhibition can be deleterious by leading to hyperexcitation such as in hyperekplexia or neurodegeneration and neuronal death as in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Second messenger systems that change cyclic AMP(More)
Encephalopathy related to idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES encephalopathy) is a rare (but well-documented) syndrome. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of HES encephalopathy, particularly diffusion-weighted images (DWI) findings, have not been reported. We report a case of HES encephalopathy in a 79-year-old male presenting with a focal(More)
Sixty-eight patients with bipolar affective disorder and 88 controls were investigated for genetic association of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs). No significant association between bipolar affective disorder and TH was found. Thus the hypothesis that TH is involved in the pathogenesis of bipolar affective(More)
To test a hypothesis that the pseudoautosomal region of the sex chromosomes contributes to the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, we carried out the following studies: First, the sex concordant rates of 77 schizophrenic sibpairs were examined. Secondly, 46 schizophrenic patients and 150 healthy controls were tested for association with DXYS17, DXYS20, DXYS28,(More)