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Genomes of hepatitis E virus (HEV), rubivirus and cutthroat virus (CTV) contain a region of high proline density and low amino acid (aa) complexity, named the polyproline region (PPR). In HEV genotypes 1, 3 and 4, it is the only region within the non-structural open reading frame (ORF1) with positive selection (4-10 codons with dN/dS>1). This region has the(More)
The PathoSystems Resource Integration Center (PATRIC) is one of eight Bioinformatics Resource Centers (BRCs) funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infection Diseases (NIAID) to create a data and analysis resource for selected NIAID priority pathogens, specifically proteobacteria of the genera Brucella, Rickettsia and Coxiella, and corona-, calici-(More)
BACKGROUND In Nigeria, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has reached hyperendemic levels and its nature and origin have been described as a puzzle. In this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and epidemic history of HBV infection in two semi-isolated rural communities in North/Central Nigeria. It was expected that only a few, if any, HBV(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an enterically transmitted hepatropic virus. It segregates as four genotypes. All genotypes infect humans while only genotypes 3 and 4 also infect several animal species. It has been suggested that hepatitis E is zoonotic, but no study has analyzed the evolutionary history of HEV. We present here an analysis of the(More)
TT virus (TTV) is a recently discovered infectious agent originally obtained from transfusion-related hepatitis. However, the causative link between the TTV infection and liver disease remains uncertain. Recent studies demonstrated that genome sequences of different TTV strains are significantly divergent. To assess genetic heterogeneity of the TTV genome(More)
In the United States, an estimated 3.2 million persons are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. HCV transmission occurs primarily through percutaneous exposure to blood, and persons who inject drugs are at greatest risk for infection. The role of sexual transmission of HCV has not been well defined. However, reports over the past decade, mainly(More)
GB virus B (GBV-B; family Flaviviridae, genus Hepacivirus) has been studied in New World primates as a model for human hepatitis C virus infection, but the distribution of GBV-B and its relatives in nature has remained obscure. Here, we report the discovery of a novel and highly divergent GBV-B-like virus in an Old World monkey, the black-and-white colobus(More)
In the United States, an estimated 3.2 million persons are living with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection (1). HCV transmission occurs primarily through percutaneous exposure to blood, and persons who inject drugs are at greatest risk for infection. The role of sexual transmission of HCV has not been well defined. However, reports over the past decade,(More)
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) allows for sampling numerous viral variants from infected patients. This provides a novel opportunity to represent and study the mutational landscape of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) within a single host. Intra-host variants of the HCV E1/E2 region were extensively sampled from 58 chronically infected patients. After NGS error(More)
The genetic characterization of hepatitis A virus (HAV) strains is commonly accomplished by sequencing subgenomic regions, such as the VP1/P2B junction. HAV genome is not extensively variable, thus presenting opportunity for sharing sequences of subgenomic regions among genetically unrelated isolates. The degree of misrepresentation of phylogenetic(More)