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The most common human cancers are malignant neoplasms of the skin. Incidence of cutaneous melanoma is rising especially steeply, with minimal progress in non-surgical treatment of advanced disease. Despite significant effort to identify independent predictors of melanoma outcome, no accepted histopathological, molecular or immunohistochemical marker defines(More)
Much evidence indicates that abnormal processing and extracellular deposition of amyloid-beta peptide (A beta), a proteolytic derivative of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (betaAPP), is central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (reviewed in ref. 1). In the PDAPP transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, immunization with A beta causes a(More)
A recently identified chemokine, fractalkine, is a member of the chemokine gene family, which consists principally of secreted, proinflammatory molecules. Fractalkine is distinguished structurally by the presence of a CX3C motif as well as transmembrane spanning and mucin-like domains and shows atypical constitutive expression in a number of(More)
Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase cascades represent one of the major signal systems used by eukaryotic cells to transduce extracellular signals into cellular responses. Four MAP kinase subgroups have been identified in humans: ERK, JNK (SAPK), ERK5 (BMK), and p38. Here we characterize a new MAP kinase, p38beta. p38beta is a 372-amino acid protein most(More)
Tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNF-R1) contains a cytoplasmic death domain that is required for the signaling of TNF activities such as apoptosis and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) activation. Normally, these signals are generated only after TNF-induced receptor aggregation. However, TNF-R1 self-associates and signals independently of ligand(More)
Seven Newcastle disease (ND) virus (NDV) isolates which were recovered from ND outbreaks in chicken and pigeon flocks in China and Taiwan between 1996 and 2000 were genotypically and pathotypically characterized. By phylogenetic analysis of the fusion protein genes, isolates Ch-A7/96, Ch/98-3, Ch/99, Ch/2000, and TW/2000 were placed into two novel(More)
Calcium (Ca2+) may be involved in plant tolerance to heat stress by regulating antioxidant metabolism or/and water relations. This study was designed to examine whether external Ca2+ treatment would improve heat tolerance in two C(3), cool-season grass species, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), and to determine(More)
For cells of the innate immune system to mount a host defence response to infection, they must recognize products of microbial pathogens such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the endotoxin secreted by Gram-negative bacteria. These cellular responses require intracellular signalling pathways, such as the four MAP kinase (MAPK) pathways. In mammalian cells the(More)
We have identified and cloned a novel serine/ threonine kinase, p38-regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK). PRAK is a 471 amino acid protein with 20-30% sequence identity to the known MAP kinase-regulated protein kinases RSK1/2/3, MNK1/2 and MAPKAP-K2/3. PRAK was found to be expressed in all human tissues and cell lines examined. In HeLa cells, PRAK was(More)
Overcoming immune tolerance of the growth factors associated with tumor growth should be a useful approach to cancer therapy by active immunity. We used vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as a model antigen to explore the feasibility of the immunogene tumor therapy with a vaccine based on a single xenogeneic homologous gene, targeting the growth(More)