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Due to the open nature of a sensor network, it is relatively easy for an adversary to eavesdrop and trace packet movement in the network in order to capture the receiver physically. After studying the adversary’s behavior patterns, we present countermeasures to this problem. We propose a locationprivacy routing protocol (LPR) that is easy to implement and(More)
Cytokines are important mediators of effector lymphoid cell function during an immune response, but their expression during an in vivo immune response has not been well documented. We analyzed the kinetics of cytokine gene expression during the course of an in vivo primary immune response to goat antibody to mouse IgD antibody. Total RNA was purified from(More)
Immunization of BALB/c mice with killed Brucella abortus (BA) has previously been shown to increase serum IgG2a levels and long-term T cell clones from these mice secrete Th1-associated cytokines: IFN-gamma and IL-2 but not IL-4 or IL-5. We analyzed cytokine gene expression following primary immunization with BA to determine when CD4+ T cells first express(More)
Here we present a new fast two-bit quantum random number generator based on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical phenomenon of photon statistics of coherent light source. Two-bit random numbers were generated according to the number of detected photons in each light pulse by a photon-number-resolving detector. Poissonian photon statistics of the(More)
We demonstrated a robust spike cancellation by virtue of optical balancing technique for the near-infrared single-photon detection based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode. A 31 dB suppression of the spike noise provided an efficient technique to read out weak avalanche currents at the early built-up, allowing the study on the photon number resolving(More)
Protein N-glycosylation (PNG) is crucial for protein folding and enzymatic activities, and has remarkable diversity among eukaryotic species. Little is known of how unique PNG mechanisms arose and evolved in eukaryotes. Here we demonstrate a picture of onset and evolution of PNG components in Golgi apparatus that shaped diversity of eukaryotic protein(More)
We demonstrate photon-number-resolving detection based on coincidence frequency upconversion. Pumped by synchronized pulses, the photon signal of the coherent state at 1.04 μm was upconverted into visible replicas with preserved photon number distribution. The upconverted photons were then registered by a silicon multipixel photon counter. The(More)
We investigated the photon-number-resolving (PNR) performance of the InGaAs/InP avalanche photodiode (APD) as a function of the electric gate width and the photon arrival time. The optimal electric gate width was around 1 ns for PNR measurements in our experiment, which provided a PNR capability up to three photons per pulse when the detection efficiency(More)
PURPOSE Esophageal varices are a dangerous complication of liver cirrhosis. The development of cost effective, noninvasive means for prediction of large esophageal varices could reduce the use of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in variceal screening and also provide an alternative way to confirm the results of conventional endoscopic diagnosis. Previously(More)