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Angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1) and angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) have opposing effects on blood vessels, with Ang-2 being mainly induced during the endothelial barrier breakdown. It is known that spinal cord injury (SCI) induces lasting decreases in Ang-1 levels, underlying endothelial barrier disruption, but the expression of Ang-2 in spinal cord injury has not been(More)
The spinal cord is vulnerable to ischemic injury due to trauma, vascular malformations and correction of thoracic aortic lesions. Riluzole, a sodium channel blocker and anti-glutamate drug has been shown to be neuroprotective in a model of ischemic spinal cord injury, although the effects in clinically relevant ischemia/reperfusion models are unknown. Here,(More)
The effects of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), an oligosaccharide, on ion currents were investigated in differentiated NG108-15 neuronal cells. In NG108-15 cells treated with dibutyryl cyclic AMP, the expression level of the K(V)3.1 mRNA was elevated. Depletion of membrane cholesterol by exposing cells to MβCD (1 mM) resulted in a significant reduction of the(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small non-encoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. MiRNAs may characterize not only specific stages of the development of the neural cell population in CNS, but also distinct types of neural cells. However, the common pathways of the neural enriched miRNAs involved in neurogenesis of(More)
In this study, we investigated whether two brain regions, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA), affected male rats' (Rattus norvigicus) ability to innately discriminate between a predator odor (cat urine) and female rat urine. Muscimol, a GABAa receptor agonist, was bilaterally microinjected into either the BNST(More)
In the CNS, juxtanodin (JN) is an actin-binding oligodendroglial protein that functions to promote differentiation of the host cells during postnatal development. In other tissues, JN expression and function remain unknown. We surveyed rat peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle and various epithelial tissues using immunoblotting and light-microscopic(More)
Although both porcine flexor and extensor tendons have been used in tendon repair research, no studies have specifically studied the anatomical differences and repair strengths in both types of tendons. We used 12 pig trotters to observe the anatomy of these tendons and compared the 2 mm gap and ultimate strengths of flexor and extensor tendons. There were(More)
The functional neutral of wrist movement is about 10° extension yet the distal radius has a volar tilt. This has not previously been explained. Assuming that the contact area between the carpus and the distal radius increased in wrist extension this would also help stabilize the carpus on the distal radius in positions where typically there is greater(More)
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