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OBJECTIVE Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have a high risk of developing NIDDM. The purpose of this study was to determine whether diet and exercise interventions in those with IGT may delay the development of NIDDM, i.e., reduce the incidence of NIDDM, and thereby reduce the overall incidence of diabetic complications, such as(More)
In mammals, the canonical nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway activated in response to infections is based on degradation of IkappaB inhibitors. This pathway depends on the IkappaB kinase (IKK), which contains two catalytic subunits, IKKalpha and IKKbeta. IKKbeta is essential for inducible IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation, whereas(More)
The yeast and human SKP1 genes regulate the mitotic cell cycle but are not yet known to be required for meiosis. Nine Arabidopsis SKP1 homologues have been uncovered and are named ASK1 through ASK9. Here, we report the isolation and characterization of a male sterile Arabidopsis mutant and show that the mutant defect was caused by a Ds transposon insertion(More)
Ced-4 and Apaf-1 belong to a major class of apoptosis regulators that contain caspase-recruitment (CARD) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domains. Nod1, a protein with an NH2-terminal CARD-linked to a nucleotide-binding domain and a COOH-terminal segment with multiple leucine-rich repeats, was identified. Nod-1 was found to bind to multiple caspases(More)
A successfully developed enzyme-based lactate microsensor with rapid response time allows the direct and continuous in vivo measurement of lactic acid concentration with high temporal resolution in brain extracellular fluid. The fluctuations coupled to neuronal activity in extracellular lactate concentration were explored in the dentate gyrus of the(More)
An enriched environment is known to promote structural changes in the brain and to enhance learning and memory performance in rodents [Hebb, D. O. (1947) Am. Psychol. 2, 306-307]. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying these experience-dependent cognitive changes, we have used high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze gene(More)
MADS domain (for MCM1, AG, DEFA and SRF) proteins are regulatory proteins found in all major eukaryotic kingdoms. Plant MADS domain regulatory proteins have a region of moderate sequence similarity that has been designated as the K domain, and its predicted coiled-coil structure suggests a role in establishing a protein-protein interaction. In vivo studies(More)
Apoptosis, a morphologically defined form of physiological cell death, is implemented by a death machinery whose executionary arm is a family of cysteine proteases called caspases. These death proteases are part of a proteolytic caspase cascade that is activated by diverse apoptotic stimuli from outside and inside of the cell. The cell death machinery is(More)
Several lines of evidence suggest that cyclic GMP might be involved in long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus. Arachidonic acid, nitric oxide and carbon monoxide, three molecules that have been proposed to act as retrograde messengers in LTP, all activate soluble guanylyl cyclase. We report here that an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase blocks the(More)
The oligomeric IkappaB kinase (IKK) is composed of three polypeptides: IKKalpha and IKKbeta, the catalytic subunits, and IKKgamma, a regulatory subunit. IKKalpha and IKKbeta are similar in structure and thought to have similar function-phosphorylation of the IkappaB inhibitors in response to proinflammatory stimuli. Such phosphorylation leads to degradation(More)