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Swelling induced enhancement of anion permeability was investigated using the halide-sensitive fluorescent dye SPQ in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells (BCEC). Rates of anion influx were quantified in terms of the rate of change of SPQ fluorescence during exposure to short duration pulses of Cl-, I-or NO3-while the cells were being perfused with I-,(More)
BACKGROUND Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) are thought to reduce pain by activating a sufficient number of large myelinated (Aβ) fibres, which in turn initiate spinal segmental mechanisms of analgesia. However, the volume of neuronal activity and how this activity is associated with different treatment targets is unclear(More)
Corneal endothelial function is dependent on HCO3- transport. However, the relative HCO3- permeabilities of the apical and basolateral membranes are unknown. Using changes in intracellular pH secondary to removing CO2-HCO3- (at constant pH) or removing HCO3- alone (at constant CO2) from apical or basolateral compartments, we determined the relative apical(More)
BACKGROUND The analgesic properties and mechanisms of loperamide hydrochloride, a peripherally acting opioid receptor agonist, in neuropathic pain warrant further investigation. METHODS We examined the effects of systemic or local administration of loperamide on heat and mechanical hyperalgesia in rats after an L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL). RESULTS (More)
The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, originating in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is normally constrained by GABA-mediated synaptic inhibition. Accumulating evidence indicates that long-term potentiation of GABAergic synapses (LTPGABA) in VTA dopamine neurons plays an important role in the actions of drugs of abuse, including ethanol. We previously(More)
Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is used clinically to treat neuropathic pain states, but the precise mechanism by which it attenuates neuropathic pain remains to be established. The profile of afferent fiber activation during SCS and how it may correlate with the efficacy of SCS-induced analgesia are unclear. After subjecting rats to an L5 spinal nerve(More)
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