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Receptor tyrosine kinase genes were sequenced in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and matched normal tissue. Somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene EGFR were found in 15of 58 unselected tumors from Japan and 1 of 61 from the United States. Treatment with the EGFR kinase inhibitor gefitinib (Iressa) causes tumor regression in some(More)
Somatic alterations in cellular DNA underlie almost all human cancers. The prospect of targeted therapies and the development of high-resolution, genome-wide approaches are now spurring systematic efforts to characterize cancer genomes. Here we report a large-scale project to characterize copy-number alterations in primary lung adenocarcinomas. By analysis(More)
Membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) is expressed on cancer cell membranes and activates the zymogen of MMP-2 (gelatinase A). We have recently isolated MT1-MMP complexed with tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 2 (TIMP-2) and demonstrated that MT1-MMP exhibits gelatinolytic activity by gelatin zymography (Imai, K., Ohuchi, E., Aoki, T.,(More)
The mouse Rad51 gene is a mammalian homologue of the Escherichia coli recA and yeast RAD51 genes, both of which are involved in homologous recombination and DNA repair. To elucidate the physiological role of RAD51 protein, the gene was targeted in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Mice heterozygous for the Rad51 null mutation were intercrossed and their offspring(More)
Expression levels of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha govern estrogen-dependent growth, response to endocrine therapy, and prognosis in ERalpha-positive breast cancer. Multiple mechanisms involved in altering ERalpha gene expression in breast cancer have been identified, including ERalpha gene amplification as well as transcriptional silencing by DNA(More)
N-(6-Aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7) and its derivatives are putative calmodulin antagonists that bind to calmodulin and inhibit Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated enzyme activities. Autoradiographic studies using tritiated W-7 showed that this compound penetrates the cell membrane, is distributed mainly in the cytoplasm, and inhibits(More)
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are synthesized as inactive zymogens (proMMP) and subsequently activated by many factors to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM). In the present study, we have examined the intermolecular activation mechanisms of proMMP by MMP-10 (stromelysin 2). ProMMP-10 was purified from the culture media of OSC-20 human oral squamous(More)
The higher frequency of human lung adenocarcinoma in females than in males, strongly suggests the involvement of gender dependent factors in the etiology of this disease. This is the first investigation of estrogen receptor (ER) beta in human lung. Immunohistochemical staining revealed ERbeta expression in normal lung and in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia(More)
Two deep ice cores from central Greenland, drilled in the 1990s, have played a key role in climate reconstructions of the Northern Hemisphere, but the oldest sections of the cores were disturbed in chronology owing to ice folding near the bedrock. Here we present an undisturbed climate record from a North Greenland ice core, which extends back to 123,000(More)
Prognosis of patients with undifferentiated gastric cancer is generally poor. The expression of various microRNAs (miRNAs) has not been comprehensively investigated in undifferentiated gastric cancer. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens of 42 undifferentiated gastric cancer tissues and paired normal gastric tissue. Quantitative reverse(More)