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Little is known about the identity of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export signals and how they are used to regulate the number of proteins on the cell surface. Here, we describe two ER export signals that profoundly altered the steady-state distribution of potassium channels and were required for channel localization to the plasma membrane. When transferred(More)
GIRK2 is a major contributor to G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channels in the mammalian brain. How GIRK channels open upon contact with Gbetagamma remains unknown. Using a yeast genetic screen to select constitutively active mutants from a randomly mutagenized GIRK2 library, we identified five gating mutations at four residues in the(More)
BACKGROUND Cyclic GMP (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) is recognized as an important signaling component in diverse cell types. PKG may influence the function of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels, an ion channel critical for stress adaptation in the heart; however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. The present study was(More)
The gamma-aminobutyric acidA (GABA)A receptor (GABAR) beta 1 and gamma 2L subtypes have been shown to be phosphorylated in vitro by protein kinase C (PKC) [J. Biol. Chem. 267:14470-14476 (1992); Neuron 12:1081-1095 (1994)]. To determine the physiological consequences of phosphorylation of GABAR isoforms containing the beta 1 and gamma 2L subtypes, the(More)
Kv voltage-gated potassium channels share a cytoplasmic assembly domain, T1. Recent mutagenesis of two T1 C-terminal loop residues implicates T1 in channel gating. However, structural alterations of these mutants leave open the question concerning direct involvement of T1 in gating. We find in mammalian Kv1.2 that gating depends critically on residues at(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels regulate insulin secretion, vascular tone, heart rate and neuronal excitability by responding to transmitters as well as the internal metabolic state. K(ATP) channels are composed of four pore-forming alpha-subunits (Kir6.2) and four regulatory beta-subunits, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B). Whereas(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels regulate insulin release, vascular tone, and neuronal excitability. Whether these channels are modulated by NO, a membrane-permeant messenger in various physiological and pathological processes, is not known. The possibility of NO signaling via K(ATP) channel modulation is of interest because both NO and K(ATP) have(More)
ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels play an important role in controlling insulin secretion and vascular tone as well as protecting neurons under metabolic stress. We have previously demonstrated that stimulation of the K(ATP) channel by nitric oxide (NO) requires activation of Ras- and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) of the(More)
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels couple cellular metabolic status to membrane electrical activity. In this study, we performed patch-clamp recordings to investigate how cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent protein kinase (PKG) regulates the function of KATP channels, using both transfected human SH-SY5Y(More)
Potassium channels are widely distributed. To serve their physiological functions, such as neuronal signaling, control of insulin release, and regulation of heart rate and blood flow, it is essential that K+ channels allow K+ but not the smaller and more abundant Na+ ions to go through. The narrowest part of the channel pore, the selectivity filter formed(More)