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In this study, we attempted to identify the mechanisms of paeoniflorin on antinociceptive effects in mice. Paeoniflorin (48, 96, 240, 480 microg, i.c.v.) showed dose-related antinociception both on the early and late phases of formalin test in mice. Moreover, paeoniflorin (48 microg, i.c.v.) could potentiate the antinociception of morphrine (0.5, 1.0 mg/kg,(More)
The mu opioid receptor gene (MOR) was mutated in mice by a gene targeting procedure. In these MOR-knockout mice, the analgesic effects of morphine, its major metabolites, morphine-6-glucuronide (M-6-G) and morphine-6-ethereal sulfate (M-6-S), and endomorphin-2, as well as morphine-induced lethality, were drastically reduced, whereas the effects of DPDPE and(More)
Transgenic zebrafish are a common vertebrate model system for the study of addictive behavior. In the present study, plasmid constructs containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and the promoter of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), a key synthetic enzyme for catecholamines, were produced. The TH-GFP constructs were microinjected into zebrafish embryonic cells.(More)
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the leading causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Current treatment strategies of HBV infection including the use of interferon (IFN)-alpha and nucleotide analogues such as lamivudine and adefovir have met with only partial success. Therefore, it is necessary to develop more(More)
Parasecretion of the hematopoietic cytokines is considered as one of the mechanisms account for bone marrow hematopoiesis disorder. In this study, the level of IL-6 secreted by bone marrow stromal cells from a mouse model of aplastic anemia was analyzed. The aplastic anemia mouse model was established with cyclophosphamide in combination with(More)
Four new jacaranone analogs, marinoids F-I (1-4), were isolated from the fruits of a Beibu Gulf mangrove Avicennia marina. The structures were elucidated based on analysis of spectroscopic data. Marinoids F and G are shown to be diastereoisomers of chlorocornoside, a new halogen containing marine secondary metabolite. The antioxidant activity of the(More)
Paddy-upland rotation is an unavoidable cropping system for Asia to meet the increasing demand for food. The reduction in grain yields has increased the research interest on the soil properties of rice-based cropping systems. Paddy-upland rotation fields are unique from other wetland or upland soils, because they are associated with frequent cycling between(More)
BACKGROUND Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a severe chronic immune mediated inflammatory disease that has been shown to be associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci. The transporter associated with antigen processing 2 (TAP2) has been identified to play an important role in the HLA-associated diseases and immune response. The goal of our meta-analysis(More)