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BACKGROUND Despite improvements in the emergency treatment of myocardial infarction (MI), early mortality and morbidity remain high. The antiplatelet agent clopidogrel adds to the benefit of aspirin in acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation, but its effects in patients with ST-elevation MI were unclear. METHODS 45,852 patients admitted to(More)
Spermatozoa undergo a poorly understood activation process induced by bicarbonate and mediated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP). It has been assumed that bicarbonate mediates its effects through changes in intracellular pH or membrane potential; however, we demonstrate here that bicarbonate directly stimulates mammalian soluble adenylyl(More)
Proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members have been proposed to play a central role in regulating apoptosis. However, mice lacking bax display limited phenotypic abnormalities. As presented here, bak(-/-) mice were found to be developmentally normal and reproductively fit and failed to develop any age-related disorders. However, when Bak-deficient mice were mated(More)
In mammals, the canonical nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway activated in response to infections is based on degradation of IkappaB inhibitors. This pathway depends on the IkappaB kinase (IKK), which contains two catalytic subunits, IKKalpha and IKKbeta. IKKbeta is essential for inducible IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation, whereas(More)
IkappaB [inhibitor of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB)] kinase (IKK) phosphorylates IkappaB inhibitory proteins, causing their degradation and activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB, a master activator of inflammatory responses. IKK is composed of three subunits-IKKalpha and IKKbeta, which are highly similar protein kinases, and IKKgamma, a(More)
To make a saccadic eye movement to a target we must first attend to it. It is therefore not surprising that diverting attention increases saccade latency, but is latency increased in all cases? We show that attending to a peripheral discrimination task has a paradoxical effect. If the stimulus to be attended appears shortly (100 to 300 ms) before an eye(More)
Using an in vitro motility assay, we have investigated Ca2+ regulation of individual, regulated thin filaments reconstituted from rabbit fast skeletal actin, troponin, and tropomyosin. Rhodamine-phalloidin labeling was used to visualize the filaments by epifluorescence, and assays were conducted at 30 degrees C and at ionic strengths near the physiological(More)
NF-kappaB is a critical activator of genes involved in inflammation and immunity. Pro-inflammatory cytokines activate the IkappaB kinase (IKK) complex that phosphorylates the NF-kappaB inhibitors, triggering their conjugation with ubiquitin and subsequent degradation. Freed NF-kappaB dimers translocate to the nucleus and induce target genes, including the(More)
BACKGROUND Eye-tracking dysfunction has been found in many patients with schizophrenia and in about 40% of their first-degree biological relatives. We hypothesized that a deficit in motion processing is associated with eye-tracking dysfunction because both motion signals and the brain regions responsible for processing motion signals are implicated in the(More)
Robust physiological actions of the neuropeptide corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on hippocampal pyramidal neurons have been demonstrated, which may contribute to synaptic efficacy and to learning and memory processes. These excitatory actions of the peptide, as well as the expression of the CRH receptor type that mediates them, are particularly(More)