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The gating mechanism of a single ion channel is usually modelled by a nite state space continuous time Markov chain. The patch clamp technique enables the experimenter to record the current owing across a single ion channel. In practice, the current is corrupted by noise and low-pass ltering, and is sampled with a typically very short sampling interval. We(More)
BACKGROUND In Western countries, a history of major depression (MD) is associated with reports of received parenting that is low in warmth and caring and high in control and authoritarianism. Does a similar pattern exist in women in China? METHOD Received parenting was assessed by a shortened version of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) in two groups(More)
This paper describes the application of artificial neural networks to discriminating the coding system of eukaryotic genes. We choose > 300 genes from eight eukaryotic organisms: human, mouse, rat, horse, ox, sheep, soybean and rabbit, from which we build up different discrimination models relevant to their promoter regions, poly(A) signals, splice site(More)
BACKGROUND The relationship between recurrent major depression (MD) in women and suicidality is complex. We investigated the extent to which patients who suffered with various forms of suicidal symptomatology can be distinguished from those subjects without such symptoms. METHOD We examined the clinical features of the worst episode in 1970 Han Chinese(More)
E-commerce applications cannot dictate the content of databases (DBs) or how the data services are provided. Thus the problem of interoperability arises when accessing existing data stores. A generalized version of this problem is called an impedance mismatch problem that arises when object oriented programs store objects in relational DBs. We describe a(More)
Ion channels are protein molecules that are intimately involved in the transmission of information through the nervous system. Their behaviour is modelled as a Markov chain, but one which cannot be observed directly. The deeciencies of the observation process make the study of ion channel data diicult. Several methods have been proposed for making inference(More)
Hidden Markov models have proved to be a very exible class of models, with many and diverse applications. Recently Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques have provided powerful computational tools to make inferences about the parameters of hidden Markov models, and about the unobserved Markov chain, when the chain is deened in discrete time. We present(More)