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The S4 segment comprises part of the voltage sensor in Shaker K+ channels. We have used a strategy similar to intragenic suppression, but without a genetic selection, to identify electrostatic interactions of the S4 segment that may be important in the mechanism of voltage-dependent activation. The S4 neutralization mutations K374Q and R377Q block(More)
Color patterns of bird plumage affect animal behavior and speciation. Diverse patterns are present in different species and within the individual. Here, we study the cellular and molecular basis of feather pigment pattern formation. Melanocyte progenitors are distributed as a horizontal ring in the proximal follicle, sending melanocytes vertically up into(More)
A 42-year-old man presented with a history of repeated episodes of consciousness disturbance for 5 years. The MRI showed abnormally high signal intensities on T2-weighted images at bilateral cingulate gyri, temporal lobes and insular regions, mimicking the finding of herpes simplex encephalitis. Hyperammonemia was disclosed. Serial work-up led to the(More)
Evaluation of pedigrees of normal and affected individuals help to suggest possible patterns of inheritance. Because large numbers of individuals are involved in studies of genetic disease, classic two-dimensional family tree charts are difficult to draw. Instead, DFA plots of graduated circles, weighted by dominance relationships, inbreeding, and additive(More)
The contributions of micro RNAs (miRNAs) to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are beginning to be uncovered during the last decade. Many studies in efforts to use miRNAs as biomarkers in disease diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment are ongoing.We conducted a systematic literature review to reveal the role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of RA in order to inform future(More)
Hairy root is a transformed root tissue in which transfer DNA (T-DNA) is inserted in the genome by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. To establish a system for multiple-gene co-transformation in hairy roots, we evaluated four different strategies using A. rhizogenes. The genes gusA and mgfp5 were located in separate plasmids, which were transformed into two(More)
Alzheimer dementia (AD) is the commonest form of dementia. Although illiteracy is associated with high prevalence of dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT), their relationship is still unclear. Nevertheless, mild DAT in illiterate participants seems to be due to brain atrophy.In this study, we compared the impact of brain metabolism efficiency in healthy(More)
The resuscitation fluids, including crystalloids and colloids, were tested in an experimental module with 16-gauge central and peripheral catheters. Infusion pressures were ranged from the gravity driving 10 kPa (75 mmHg) to the pressurized driving 50 kPa (375 mmHg). The experiment results were correlated to obtain the empirical friction factors and the(More)
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