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Somatic embryogenesis requires auxin and establishment of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). WUSCHEL (WUS) is critical for stem cell fate determination in the SAM of higher plants. However, regulation of WUS expression by auxin during somatic embryogenesis is poorly understood. Here, we show that expression of several regulatory genes important in zygotic(More)
Settling time has been considered as one of the most effective selection pressures for aerobic granulation in sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), i.e., poorly settleable bioparticles would be washed out from SBRs, and the heavy and good settling ones would be retained at a shorter setting time. However, its biological implication remains unclear. This study(More)
Polyethylenimine (PEI) has attracted much attention as a DNA condenser, but its toxicity and non-specific targeting limit its potential. To overcome these limitations, Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (ASF), a natural protein rich in arginyl-glycyl-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides that contains negative surface charges in a neutral aqueous solution, was used to(More)
So far, the first- and second-order kinetic equations have been most frequently employed to interpret adsorption data obtained under various conditions, whereas the theoretical origins of these two equations still remain unknown. Using the Langmuir kinetics as a theoretical basis, this study showed that the Langmuir kinetics can be transformed to a(More)
Auxin and cytokinin signaling participates in regulating a large spectrum of developmental and physiological processes in plants. The shoots and roots of plants have specific and sometimes even contrary responses to these hormones. Recent studies have clearly shown that establishing the spatiotemporal distribution of auxin and cytokinin response signals is(More)
The deammonification process combining partial nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation has been considered as a viable option for energy-efficient used water treatment. So far, many full-scale sidestream deammonification plants handling high-ammonia used water have been in successful operation since Anammox bacteria were first discovered in the 1990s.(More)
Lateral root constitutes an important part of root system either in tap root plants or fibrous root plants. The development of lateral root primordium (LRP) in Arabidopsis, which has a tap root system with simple radial structure of primary root, has been well characterized. However, limited knowledge has been acquired on the plants with fibrous root(More)
Aerobic granules are dense and compact microbial aggregates with various bacterial species. Recently, aerobic granulation technology has been extensively explored for treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters. However, little information is currently available with regard to their structure stability and integrity at levels of energy metabolism and(More)
This study investigated the response of different-age biofilms developed on membrane surface to a chemical uncoupler 3, 3′, 4′, 5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS). Results showed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP) dissipation caused by TCS would promote different-age biofilms detachment, whereas chemically inhibited cellular ATP synthesis subsequently(More)
Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have been described as a class of particulate acidic polysaccharides, which are large, transparent organic particles, and commonly found in seawater, surface water, and wastewater. Due to their unique physicochemical characteristics, more and more attention has recently been given to the effects of TEP on membrane(More)