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African trypanosomes have a single, membrane-bounded flagellum that is attached to the cell cortex by membrane adhesion proteins and an intracellular flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) complex. The coordinated assembly of flagellum and FAZ, during the cell cycle and the life cycle development, plays a pivotal role in organelle positioning, cell division and(More)
In plant, primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) transcribed from miRNA genes by RNA polymerase II are first processed into stem-loop pre-miRNAs and further chopped into ∼21 nt long miRNAs by RNase III-like enzyme DCL1. SERRATE (SE) protein is an essential component for miRNA processing by assisting DCL1 for accurate cleavage. Here we report the crystal structure(More)
Intensive research interest has focused on small RNA-processing machinery and the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), key cellular machines in RNAi pathways. However, the structural mechanism regarding RISC assembly, the primary step linking small RNA processing and RNA-mediated gene silencing, is largely unknown. Human RNA helicase A (DHX9) was reported(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) has been used as a promising approach to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication for both in vitro and in vivo animal models. However, HIV-1 escape mutants after RNAi treatment have been reported. Expressing multiple small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against conserved viral sequences can serve as a genetic(More)
BACKGROUND Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious disease that infects cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination is an effective means of preventing and controlling FMD. Compared to conventional inactivated FMDV vaccines, the format of FMDV virus-like particles (VLPs) as a non-replicating particulate vaccine candidate is a promising(More)
We have previously shown that a non-structural protein 1 (NS1)-binding monoclonal antibody, termed as 2H6, can significantly reduce influenza A virus (IAV) replication when expressed intracellularly. In this study, we further showed that 2H6 binds stronger to the NS1 of H5N1 than A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1) because of an amino acid difference at residue 48.(More)
Mature HIV-1 viral particles assemble as a fullerene configuration comprising p24 capsid hexamers, pentamers and dimers. In this paper, we report the X-ray crystal structures of the p24 protein from natural HIV-1 strain (BMJ4) in complex with Fab A10F9, which recognizes a conserved epitope in the C-terminal domain of the BMJ4 p24 protein. Our structures(More)
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