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To achieve accuracy in studying the patterns of loss of midbrain dopamine-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease, we used compartmental patterns of calbindin D(28K) immunostaining to subdivide the substantia nigra with landmarks independent of the degenerative process. Within the substantia nigra pars compacta, we identified dopamine-containing neurons(More)
Parkinson's disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalon. Although the mechanism of this neuronal loss is still unknown, oxidative stress is very likely involved in the cascade of events leading to nerve cell death. Since nitric oxide could be involved in the production of free radicals, we analysed, using(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) results from the expansion of a polyglutamine encoding CAG repeat in a gene of unknown function. The wide expression of this transcript does not correlate with the pattern of neuropathology in HD. To study the HD gene product (huntingtin), we have developed monoclonal antibodies raised against four different regions of the protein.(More)
In idiopathic Parkinson's disease massive cell death occurs in the dopamine-containing substantia nigra. A link between the vulnerability of nigral neurons and the prominent pigmentation of the substantia nigra, though long suspected, has not been proved. This possibility is supported by evidence that N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and(More)
Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia with progressive macular degeneration is caused by a CAG/glutamine repeat expansion in the SCA7 gene/protein. Neuronal intranuclear inclusions were detected in the brain of an early onset SCA7 case with the 1C2 antibody directed against an expanded polyglutamine domain. Nuclear inclusions were most frequent in the(More)
Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were measured in various brain areas (substantia nigra, putamen, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and cerebral cortex) from patients dying with Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple-system atrophy, and Huntington's disease and from control subjects with no(More)
Dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations were measured in several cortical areas, hippocampus and, for comparison, in the caudate nucleus, from control subjects and parkinsonian patients. Substantial amounts of these compounds were detected in hippocampus, and(More)
Activated glial cells observed in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease may participate in the mechanism of nerve cell death by providing toxic substances such as cytokines. Among these compounds, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is of interest because it can provoke cell death. We detected TNF-immunoreactive glial cells in the substantia nigra of(More)
Dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP), a permeant analogue of cyclic AMP (cAMP), prevented, for at least 3 weeks, the death of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunopositive dopaminergic neurons, which occurred spontaneously by apoptosis in mesencephalic cultures. Treatment with the cyclic nucleotide analogue also led to a significant increase in the uptake of [3H](More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cell loss confined mostly to dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Several factors, including oxidative stress, and decreased activity of complex I mitochondrial respiratory chain, are involved in the degenerative process. Yet, the underlying mechanisms leading to(More)