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To achieve accuracy in studying the patterns of loss of midbrain dopamine-containing neurons in Parkinson's disease, we used compartmental patterns of calbindin D(28K) immunostaining to subdivide the substantia nigra with landmarks independent of the degenerative process. Within the substantia nigra pars compacta, we identified dopamine-containing neurons(More)
In idiopathic Parkinson's disease massive cell death occurs in the dopamine-containing substantia nigra. A link between the vulnerability of nigral neurons and the prominent pigmentation of the substantia nigra, though long suspected, has not been proved. This possibility is supported by evidence that N-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and(More)
Parkinson's disease is characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the mesencephalon. Although the mechanism of this neuronal loss is still unknown, oxidative stress is very likely involved in the cascade of events leading to nerve cell death. Since nitric oxide could be involved in the production of free radicals, we analysed, using(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) results from the expansion of a polyglutamine encoding CAG repeat in a gene of unknown function. The wide expression of this transcript does not correlate with the pattern of neuropathology in HD. To study the HD gene product (huntingtin), we have developed monoclonal antibodies raised against four different regions of the protein.(More)
Using a combination of metabolic measurement and retrograde tracing, we show that the neurons in the pedunculopontine nucleus and parafascicular nucleus of the thalamus that project to the subthalamic nucleus are hyperactive after nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation in rats. In Parkinson's disease, the loss of dopaminergic neurons induces a cascade of(More)
Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia with progressive macular degeneration is caused by a CAG/glutamine repeat expansion in the SCA7 gene/protein. Neuronal intranuclear inclusions were detected in the brain of an early onset SCA7 case with the 1C2 antibody directed against an expanded polyglutamine domain. Nuclear inclusions were most frequent in the(More)
Reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were measured in various brain areas (substantia nigra, putamen, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and cerebral cortex) from patients dying with Parkinson's disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, multiple-system atrophy, and Huntington's disease and from control subjects with no(More)
Dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations were measured in several cortical areas, hippocampus and, for comparison, in the caudate nucleus, from control subjects and parkinsonian patients. Substantial amounts of these compounds were detected in hippocampus, and(More)
Polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels (an index of the amount of substrate available for lipid peroxidation) were measured in several brain regions from patients who died with Parkinson's disease and age-matched control human postmortem brains. PUFA levels were reduced in parkinsonian substantia nigra compared to other brain regions and to control(More)
Activated glial cells observed in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease may participate in the mechanism of nerve cell death by providing toxic substances such as cytokines. Among these compounds, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is of interest because it can provoke cell death. We detected TNF-immunoreactive glial cells in the substantia nigra of(More)