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Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) are potent inducers of osteoclast (OCL) formation, and PTH increases FGF-2 mRNA and protein expression in osteoblasts. To elucidate the role of endogenous FGF-2 in PTH responses, we examined PTH-induced OCL formation in bone marrow cultures from wild type and mice with a disruption of the Fgf2(More)
To realize the medicinal potential of peptide toxins, naturally occurring disulfide-rich peptides, as ion channel antagonists, more efficient pharmaceutical optimization technologies must be developed. Here, we show that the therapeutic properties of multiple cysteine toxin peptides can be rapidly and substantially improved by combining direct chemical(More)
Mast cells (MCs) have important functional roles in leukocyte recruitment, pain, and wound healing, and increased tissue resident MC function has been associated with several fibrotic diseases. Consequently, the study of MCs in situ can be a direct approach to studying the pharmacodynamic impact of MC-directed therapeutics in tissues. Here we describe an(More)
The sphingosine-1-phosphate-1 receptor (S1P1) and its endogenous ligand sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) cooperatively regulate lymphocyte trafficking from the lymphatic system. Herein, we disclose 4-methoxy-N-[2-(trifluoromethyl)biphenyl-4-ylcarbamoyl]nicotinamide (8), an uncommon example of a synthetic S1P1 agonist lacking a polar headgroup, which is shown(More)
The optimization of a series of S1P1 agonists with limited activity against S1P3 is reported. A polar headgroup was used to improve the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic parameters of lead quinolinone 6. When dosed orally at 1 and 3 mg/kg, the azahydroxymethyl analogue 22 achieved statistically significant lowering of circulating blood lymphocytes 24 h(More)
Inhibition of c-Kit has the potential to treat mast cell associated fibrotic diseases. We report the discovery of several aminoquinazoline pyridones that are potent inhibitors of c-Kit with greater than 200-fold selectivity against KDR, p38, Lck, and Src. In vivo efficacy of pyridone 16 by dose-dependent inhibition of histamine release was demonstrated in a(More)
The optimization of a series of thiazolopyridine S1P1 agonists with limited activity at the S1P3 receptor is reported. These efforts resulted in the discovery of 1-(3-fluoro-4-(5-(1-phenylcyclopropyl)thiazolo-[5,4-b]pyridin-2-yl)benzyl)azetidine-3-carboxylic acid (5d, AMG 369), a potent dual S1P1/S1P5 agonist with limited activity at S1P3 and no activity at(More)
Optimization of a benzofuranyl S1P1 agonist lead compound (3) led to the discovery of 1-(3-fluoro-4-(5-(2-fluorobenzyl)benzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)benzyl)azetidine-3-carboxylic acid (14), a potent S1P1 agonist with minimal activity at S1P3. Dosed orally at 0.3 mg/kg, 14 significantly reduced blood lymphocyte counts 24 h postdose and attenuated a delayed type(More)
Obstructive respiratory diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are currently treated by inhaled anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator drugs. Despite the availability of multiple treatments, both diseases are growing public health concerns. The majority of asthma patients are well controlled on current inhaled therapies but a(More)