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BACKGROUND The radix of Glehnia littoralis Fr. Schmidt ex Miq. (Beishashen), is often misidentified and adultered in Chinese medicine. Its seven common adulterants include Chuanminshen violaceum Sheh et Shan (Chuanmingshen), Changium smyrnioides Wolff (Mingdangshen), Sphallerocarpus gracilis (Bess.) K.-Pol. (Miguoqin), Adenophora polyantha Nakai(More)
Allelopathy has been hypothesized to play a role in exotic plant invasions, and study of this process can improve our understanding of how direct and indirect plant interactions influence plant community organization and ecosystem functioning. However, allelopathic effects can be highly conditional. For example allelopathic effects demonstrated in vivo can(More)
Many investigations across natural and artificial plant diversity gradients have reported that both soil physicochemical factors and plant community composition affect soil microbial communities. To test the effect of plant diversity loss on soil bacterial communities, we conducted a five-year plant functional group removal experiment in a steppe ecosystem(More)
Quantitative data are essential to an appropriate characterization of vegetation. In the past few years, considerable attention has been paid to vegetation sampling techniques. A number of methods have been developed for plant density estimations that utilize spacing distances instead of fixed-area quadrats. In this paper, we review the main distance(More)
and Applied Analysis 3 Given x, λ, μ, c , the augmented Lagrangian relaxation problem associated with the augmented Lagrangian L is defined by min L ( x, λ, μ, c ) s.t. x ∈ Ω. Lλ,μ,c Given ε ≥ 0, then the ε-optimal solution set of Lλ,μ,c , denoted by S∗ λ, μ, c, ε , is defined as { x ∈ Ω | Lx, λ, μ, c ≤ inf x∈Ω L ( x, λ, μ, c ) ε } . 2.2 IfΩ is closed and(More)
Exotic plant species can benefit from altering soil microbial communities; however, the knowledge of the mechanisms through which this occurs is limited. The exotic species, Eupatorium adenophorum is a perennial plant that is aggressively invading southern China. Its invasiveness is attributed partially to its ability to release secondary chemicals that(More)
For nonconvex optimization problem with both equality and inequality constraints, we introduce a new augmented Lagrangian function and propose the corresponding multiplier algorithm. New iterative strategy on penalty parameter is presented. Different global convergence properties are established depending on whether the penalty parameter is bounded. Even if(More)
Fabaceae is a huge family that contains a large number of medicinal plants, many of which are commonly used in Chinese traditional medicine. However, traditional taxonomy has not been able to meet the complicated demands of species discrimination within Fabaceae. Thus, we employed a famous DNA barcode, the psbA-trnH region, to discriminate commonly used(More)
In this paper, for nonconvex optimization problem with both equality and inequality constrains, we introduce a new augmented Lagrangian function and propose the corresponding multiplier algorithm. The global convergence is established without requiring the boundedness of multiplier sequences. In particular, if the algorithm terminates in finite steps, then(More)
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