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To identify genes of potential importance to cold, salt, and drought tolerance, global expression profiling was performed on Arabidopsis plants subjected to stress treatments of 4 degrees C, 100 mM NaCl, or 200 mM mannitol, respectively. RNA samples were collected separately from leaves and roots after 3- and 27-h stress treatments. Profiling was conducted(More)
Mechanical wounding not only damages plant tissues, but also provides pathways for pathogen invasion. To understand plant responses to wounding at a genomic level, we have surveyed the transcriptional response of 8,200 genes in Arabidopsis plants. Approximately 8% of these genes were altered by wounding at steady-state mRNA levels. Studies of expression(More)
Numerous studies have shown that transcription factors are important in regulating plant responses to environmental stress. However, specific functions for most of the genes encoding transcription factors are unclear. In this study, we used mRNA profiles generated from microarray experiments to deduce the functions of genes encoding known and putative(More)
Systemic infections of plants by viruses require that viruses modify host cells in order to facilitate infections. These modifications include induction of host factors required for replication, propagation and movement, and suppression of host defense responses, which are likely to be associated with changes in host gene expression. Past studies of the(More)
In plants, the formation of isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate, the central intermediates in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, is compartmentalized: the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, which is localized to the cytosol, is responsible for the synthesis of sterols, certain sesquiterpenes, and the side chain of ubiquinone; in contrast, the(More)
Different Arabidopsis phytochrome (phy) family members (phyA through phyE) display differential photosensory and/or physiological functions in regulating growth and developmental responses to light signals. To identify the genes regulated by phyB in response to continuous monochromatic red light (Rc) during the induction of seedling de-etiolation, we have(More)
We have isolated a tiger frog virus (TFV) from diseased tiger frogs, Rana tigrina rugulosa. The genome was a linear double-stranded DNA of 105,057 basepairs in length with a base composition of 55.01% G+C. About 105 open reading frames were identified with coding capacities for polypeptides ranging from 40 to 1294 amino acids. Computer-assisted analyses of(More)
Macrophage ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), and ABCG1 have been shown to promote cholesterol efflux to extracellular acceptors in vitro and influence atherosclerosis in mice, but their roles in mediating reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) from macrophages in vivo are unknown. Using an assay of(More)
Adipocytes store triglyceride during periods of nutritional affluence and release free fatty acids during fasting through coordinated cycles of lipogenesis and lipolysis. While much is known about the acute regulation of these processes during fasting and feeding, less is understood about the transcriptional basis by which adipocytes control lipid handling.(More)
Imaging membranes in live cells with nanometer-scale resolution promises to reveal ultrastructural dynamics of organelles that are essential for cellular functions. In this work, we identified photoswitchable membrane probes and obtained super-resolution fluorescence images of cellular membranes. We demonstrated the photoswitching capabilities of eight(More)