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In the shadow-moiré system, the period of the grating is varied by rotation of the grating, so the phase of the moiré pattern is changed as well. By the selection of suitable rotation angles, three images at different positions of the grating are acquired to obtain the absolute distance from the object to the grating. A theoretical analysis is presented for(More)
Ion beam figuring technology for low-gradient mirrors is discussed. Ion beam figuring is a noncontact machining technique in which a beam of high-energy ions is directed toward a target workpiece to remove material in a predetermined and controlled fashion. Owing to this noncontact mode of material removal, problems associated with tool wear and edge(More)
Ultraprecise and ultrasmooth surfaces become critical requirements for some high-performance optical systems. Ion-beam figuring (IBF) is a good and highly deterministic method for the final precision optical figuring. However, the uniform convergences of all spatial frequency surface errors are strongly dependent on the dynamic performance and ion-beam(More)
Kinetic drag force is an important performance for micro in-pipe robot. It influences the velocity, traveling distance and load ability of the robot directly. First, a novel creeping micro in-pipe robot is presented in this paper, and the system structure and operating principle are introduced. Then cable drag force, rolling resistance, moment of resistance(More)
A translation-reduced ion beam figuring (TRIBF) technique for five-axis ion beam figuring (IBF) plants is proposed to process large size components which cannot be processed in the traditional way. This novel technique enhances the capability of five-axis IBF plants by taking advantage of their rotation axes. The IBF kinematic model is described and the(More)
Large surface gradient and extensive mid-to-high spatial frequency in continuous phase plates (CPPs) with small structures make it difficult to achieve high-precision fabrication. An ion beam figuring (IBF) technology to fabricate CPPs with such characteristics is proposed in this paper. In order to imprint CPP microstructures with smaller spatial periods(More)
Ultra-precision and ultra-smooth surfaces are vitally important for some high performance optical systems. Ion beam figuring (IBF) is a well-established, highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of extremely high quality optical surfaces, whereas ion sputtering induced smoothing, or roughening for nanoscale surface morphology, strongly(More)
Ion beam figuring (IBF) is established for the final precision figuring of optical components. In this deterministic method, the figuring process is represented by a two-dimensional (2D) convolution operation of a constant removal function and the dwell time, where the figuring precision is guaranteed by the stability of the removal function as well as the(More)
Ion beam figuring (IBF) technology for small scale optical components is discussed. Since the small removal function can be obtained in IBF, it makes computer-controlled optical surfacing technology possible to machine precision centimeter- or millimeter-scale optical components deterministically. Using a small ion beam to machine small optical components,(More)
An ion beam with high removal rate and small diameter is expected in ion beam figuring. For an ion beam figuring tool, reducing the extraction grid opening is a feasible method to decrease the ion beam diameter, but the ion beam removal rate decreases at the same time. The ion beam removal rate depends much on the ion density in the ion source discharge(More)