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DAMBE (data analysis in molecular biology and evolution) is an integrated software package for converting, manipulating, statistically and graphically describing, and analyzing molecular sequence data with a user-friendly Windows 95/98/2000/NT interface. DAMBE is free and can be downloaded from http://web.hku.hk/~xxia/software/software.htm. The current(More)
We introduce a new index to measure substitution saturation in a set of aligned nucleotide sequences. The index is based on the notion of entropy in information theory. We derive the critical values of the index based on computer simulation with different sequence lengths, different number of OTUs and different topologies. The critical value enables(More)
Since its first release in 2001 as mainly a software package for phylogenetic analysis, data analysis for molecular biology and evolution (DAMBE) has gained many new functions that may be classified into six categories: 1) sequence retrieval, editing, manipulation, and conversion among more than 20 standard sequence formats including MEGA, NEXUS, PHYLIP,(More)
malaria parasites comparative genomics evolution and molecular biology PDF human mitochondrial dna and the evolution of homo sapiens nucleic acids and molecular biology PDF bioinformatics for dna sequence analysis methods in molecular biology PDF ib biology data analysis answers PDF synthetic biology current topics from the encyclopedia of molecular cell(More)
FOXL2 is a forkhead transcription factor involved in ovarian development and function. Here, we have studied the evolution and pattern of expression of the FOXL2 gene and its paralogs in fish. We found well conserved FoxL2 sequences (FoxL2a) and divergent genes, whose forkhead domains belonged to the class L2 and were shown to be paralogs of the FoxL2a(More)
The H-strand of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA is left single-stranded for hours during the slow DNA replication. This facilitates C-->U mutations on the H-strand (and consequently G-->A mutations on the L-strand) via spontaneous deamination which occurs much more frequently on single-stranded than on double-stranded DNA. For the 12 coding sequences (CDS)(More)
The rate of protein synthesis depends on both the rate of initiation of translation and the rate of elongation of the peptide chain. The rate of initiation depends on the encountering rate between ribosomes and mRNA; this rate in turn depends on the concentration of ribosomes and mRNA. Thus, patterns of codon usage that increase transcriptional efficiency(More)
Goldfish (Carassius auratus) are excellent model organisms for the neuroendocrine signaling and the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates. Goldfish also serve as useful model organisms in numerous other fields. In contrast to mammals, teleost fish do not have a median eminence; the anterior pituitary is innervated by numerous neuronal cell types and(More)
In scientific research, integration and synthesis require a common understanding of where data come from, how much they can be trusted, and what they may be used for. To make such an understanding computer-accessible requires standards for exchanging richly annotated data. The challenges of conveying reusable data are particularly acute in regard to(More)
We investigated the effects of fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, on neuroendocrine function and the reproductive axis in female goldfish. Fish were given intraperitoneal injections of fluoxetine twice a week for 14 days, resulting in five injections of 5 microg fluoxetine/g body wt. We measured the monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin,(More)