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BACKGROUND Termite lignocellulose digestion is achieved through a collaboration of host plus prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts. In the present work, we took a combined host and symbiont metatranscriptomic approach for investigating the digestive contributions of host and symbiont in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Our approach consisted of(More)
Termites have developed cellulose digestion capabilities that allow them to obtain energy and nutrition from nutritionally poor food sources, such as lignocellulosic plant material and residues derived from it (e.g., wood and humus). Lower termites, which are equipped with both endogenous (i.e., of termite origin) and symbiotic cellulases, feed primarily on(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) represents a breakthrough technology for conducting functional genomics research in non-model organisms and for the highly targeted control of insect pests. This study investigated RNAi via voluntary feeding in the economically important pest termite, Reticulitermes flavipes. We used a high-dose double-stranded (ds) RNA feeding(More)
Lower termites express a unique form of eusocial polyphenism in that totipotent workers can differentiate into either soldier or reproductive caste phenotypes. In this initial effort using RNA interference in termites, we found that two hexamerin genes, Hex-1 and Hex-2, participate in the regulation of caste polyphenism. Our methodology involved a dual(More)
The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is an invasive plant parasitic nematode and a worldwide quarantine pest. An indigenous species in North America and the causal agent of pine wilt disease, B. xylophilus has devastated pine production in Southeastern Asia including Japan, China, and Korea since its initial introduction in the early 1900s.(More)
Many of true bugs are important insect pests to cultivated crops and some are important vectors of human diseases, but few cladistic analyses have addressed relationships among the seven infraorders of Heteroptera. The Enicocephalomorpha and Nepomorpha are consider the basal groups of Heteroptera, but the basal-most lineage remains unresolved. Here we(More)
Worker termites of the genus Reticulitermes are temporally-arrested juvenile forms that can terminally differentiate into adultsoldier- or reproductive-caste phenotypes. Soldier-caste differentiation is a developmental transition that is induced by high juvenile hormone (JH) titers. Recently, a status quo hexamerin mechanism was identified, which reduces JH(More)
The 16, 470 bp nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of an assassin bug from the reduviid subfamily Harpactorinae, Agriosphodrus dohrni, has been revealed. The entire genome encodes for two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and a control region. The nucleotide composition is(More)
BACKGROUND Nabidae, a family of predatory heteropterans, includes two subfamilies and five tribes. We previously reported the complete mitogenome of Alloeorhynchus bakeri, a representative of the tribe Prostemmatini in the subfamily Prostemmatinae. To gain a better understanding of architecture and evolution of mitogenome in Nabidae, mitogenomes of five(More)
In previous investigations, we have determined that organophosphate resistance in the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, is at least partially attributed to a group of non-specific carboxylesterases referred to as group II. Antiserum raised against a purified 66-kDa group II esterase is specific for the denatured enzyme. This antiserum(More)