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BACKGROUND Termite lignocellulose digestion is achieved through a collaboration of host plus prokaryotic and eukaryotic symbionts. In the present work, we took a combined host and symbiont metatranscriptomic approach for investigating the digestive contributions of host and symbiont in the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes. Our approach consisted of(More)
Many of true bugs are important insect pests to cultivated crops and some are important vectors of human diseases, but few cladistic analyses have addressed relationships among the seven infraorders of Heteroptera. The Enicocephalomorpha and Nepomorpha are consider the basal groups of Heteroptera, but the basal-most lineage remains unresolved. Here we(More)
The 16, 470 bp nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of an assassin bug from the reduviid subfamily Harpactorinae, Agriosphodrus dohrni, has been revealed. The entire genome encodes for two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and a control region. The nucleotide composition is(More)
BACKGROUND Nabidae, a family of predatory heteropterans, includes two subfamilies and five tribes. We previously reported the complete mitogenome of Alloeorhynchus bakeri, a representative of the tribe Prostemmatini in the subfamily Prostemmatinae. To gain a better understanding of architecture and evolution of mitogenome in Nabidae, mitogenomes of five(More)
To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable expressed housekeeping genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes, including actin (Actin), elongation factor 1 α (EF1A), TATA-box-binding protein (TATA), ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12), β-tubulin (Tubulin),(More)
RNA interference, or RNAi, refers to a set of biological processes that make use of conserved cellular machinery to silence genes. Although there are several variations in the source and mechanism, they are all triggered by double stranded RNA (dsRNA) which is processed by a protein complex into small, single stranded RNA, referred to as small interfering(More)
The concurrence of tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) with the spread of its vector Bemisia tabaci Q rather than B in China suggests a more mutualistic relationship between TYLCV and Q. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that viruliferous B and Q have different effects on plant defenses. We found the fecundity of nonviruliferous B, nonviruliferous Q,(More)
Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique to investigate comparative gene expression. In general, normalization of results using a highly stable housekeeping gene (HKG) as an internal control is recommended and necessary. However, there are several reports suggesting that regulation of some HKGs is affected by different conditions. The(More)
A previous study documented a glycine to glutamic acid mutation (G4946E) in ryanodine receptor (RyR) was highly correlated to diamide insecticide resistance in field populations of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae). In this study, a field population collected in Yunnan province, China, exhibited a 2128-fold resistance to chlorantraniliprole.(More)
The pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, is an invasive plant parasitic nematode and a worldwide quarantine pest. An indigenous species in North America and the causal agent of pine wilt disease, B. xylophilus has devastated pine production in Southeastern Asia including Japan, China, and Korea since its initial introduction in the early 1900s.(More)