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[1] This paper compares seasonal and spatial variations of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) albedos with those from the Common Land Model (CLM) by land cover type. MODIS albedo data in the year 2001 were used to determine seasonal, spatial, and land cover dependence at 1 km resolution and to investigate the biases in CLM. Albedo(More)
[1] This paper compares by land cover type seasonal and spatial variations of MODIS leaf area index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation (0.4–0.7 mm) absorbed by vegetation (FPAR) from 2.5 years with those from the Common Land Model (CLM) and investigates possible reasons for notable differences. The FPAR value is mainly determined by(More)
Recent model simulations of the effects of increasing greenhouse gases combined with other anthropogenic effects predicted larger rates of warming in the mid and upper troposphere than near the Earth’s surface. In multiple model comparisons we find that accelerated upper-level warming is simulated in all models for the greenhouse-gas/direct-aerosol forcing(More)
The cosmic-ray method for measuring soil moisture, used in the Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS), relies on the exceptional ability of hydrogen to moderate fast neutrons. Sources of hydrogen near the ground, other than soil moisture, affect the neutron measurement and therefore must be quantified. This study investigates the effect of(More)
[1] This paper documents an observed lower extreme of midtropospheric (500 mbar) temperatures in the Arctic of approximately 45 C during the winter season in several data sets. Each data set shows that the coldest air masses in the Arctic reach 45 C during the fall months but seldom get much colder even into late winter despite a continued net radiative(More)
Ocean reanalysis provides a temporally continuous and spatially gridded four-dimensional estimate of the ocean state for a better understanding of the ocean dynamics and its spatial/temporal variability. Here we present a 19-year (1992-2010) high-resolution ocean reanalysis dataset of the upper ocean in the South China Sea (SCS) produced from an ocean data(More)
[1] Observations indicate a minimum mid-tropospheric Arctic winter temperature of about 45 C at 500 hPa. This minimum temperature coincides with that predicted for moist adiabatic ascent over a sea surface near its salinity-adjusted freezing point. NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis data show that convective heating maxima averaged over the 50–70 N latitude band coincide(More)
The cosmic-ray method for measuring soil moisture, used in the Cosmic-Ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS), relies on the exceptional ability of hydrogen to moderate fast neutrons. Sources of hydrogen near the ground, other than soil moisture, affect the neutron measurement and therefore must be quantified. This study investigates the effect of(More)
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