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Microarrays of defined glycans represent a high throughput approach to determining the specificity of lectins, or more generally glycan-binding proteins (GBPs). The utility of a glycan microarray is directly related to the number and variety of the glycans available on the printed surface for interrogation by GBPs. The Consortium for Functional Glycomics(More)
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) regulates leukocyte turnover by inducing the cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), a ligand that targets cells for phagocytic removal, in the absence of apoptosis. Gal-1 monomer-dimer equilibrium appears to modulate Gal-1-induced PS exposure, although the mechanism underlying this regulation remains unclear. Here we show that(More)
Influenza viruses bind to host cell surface glycans containing terminal sialic acids, but as studies on influenza binding become more sophisticated, it is becoming evident that although sialic acid may be necessary, it is not sufficient for productive binding. To better define endogenous glycans that serve as viral receptors, we have explored glycan(More)
The glycans displayed on mammalian cells can differ markedly from those on microbes. Such differences could, in principle, be read by carbohydrate-binding proteins, or lectins. We used glycan microarrays to show that human intelectin-1 (hIntL-1) does not bind known human glycan epitopes but interacts with multiple glycan epitopes found exclusively on(More)
Galectin-1 (Gal-1) and galectin-3 (Gal-3) are widely expressed galectins with immunoregulatory functions in animals. To explore their glycan specificity, we developed microarrays of naturally occurring glycans using a bifunctional fluorescent linker, 2-amino-N-(2-aminoethyl)-benzamide (AEAB), directly conjugated through its arylamine group by reductive(More)
Major challenges of glycomics are to characterize a glycome and identify functional glycans as ligands for glycan-binding proteins (GBPs). To address these issues we developed a general strategy termed shotgun glycomics. We focus on glycosphingolipids (GSLs), a class of glycoconjugates that is challenging to study, recognized by toxins, antibodies and GBPs.(More)
Many glycan-binding proteins in animals and pathogens recognize sialic acid or its modified forms, but their molecular recognition is poorly understood. Here we describe studies on sialic acid recognition using a novel sialylated glycan microarray containing modified sialic acids presented on different glycan backbones. Glycans terminating in β-linked(More)
A glycan microarray was developed by using 2,6-diaminopyridine (DAP) as a fluorescent linker and printing of the glycan-DAP conjugates (GDAPs) on epoxy-activated glass slides. Importantly, all coupled GDAPs showed a detectable level of concentration-dependent GDAP fluorescence under blue laser excitation (495 nm) that can be used for both grid location and(More)
DNA and protein arrays are commonly accepted as powerful exploratory tools in research. This has mainly been achieved by the establishment of proper guidelines for quality control, allowing cross-comparison between different array platforms. As a natural extension, glycan microarrays were subsequently developed, and recent advances using such arrays have(More)
Human milk contains a large diversity of free glycans beyond lactose, but their functions are not well understood. To explore their functional recognition, here we describe a shotgun glycan microarray prepared from isolated human milk glycans (HMGs), and our studies on their recognition by viruses, antibodies, and glycan-binding proteins (GBPs), including(More)